ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Youth Employment in India

India is set to add about one-fifth of incremental global youth population in the next two decades. This relative “greening” of India’s population and workforce is expected to bring down dependency ratio, increase savings rate and investment ratios, boost macroeconomic growth and yield a demographic dividend for the country, but this depends on whether the additional youth workforce finds remunerative and productive jobs. Examining the employment situation of the youth in India, we discover that labour force participation rate and work participation rate are declining, caused mainly by increased participation in education, but the increasing unemployment rate is worrisome.

Change in the Employment– Unemployment Situation

By taking into consideration five different panels with each one of them surveyed during four consecutive quarters covering the period most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of employment scenario, this article examines the change in the employment–unemployment situation of the same persons during the four consecutive quarters. The study is confined to urban India and uses the unit-level data collected through the Periodic Labour Force Survey.

Unfolding the Employment Story in Uttar Pradesh

The article examines labour market changes in Uttar Pradesh and fi nds a deeper employment crisis in the state. The analysis shows a sharp decline in workforce participation and an increase in unemployment levels across all age groups and education levels after 2011–12. Employment decline was particularly high among the youth and the most educated. Female workforce participation hit a historic low in 2018–19.

Women’s Work Participation in Rural Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

India ranks among a handful of countries in West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia to have the lowest female labour force participation rates in the world. The LFPR has further been declining for women in India in the last two decades. The article focuses on the south Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to understand the proximate causes for these shifts. We combine temporal trends from the Employment and Unemployment surveys of the National Sample Survey Office with the literature on agrarian studies in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to explain the changes in rural women’s labour force participation and summarise the challenges in studying temporal trends in women’s work.

 

Analysing Core Indicators of Decent Work for the Indian Fisheries Sector

The International Labour Organization included the concept of decent work in the Sustainable Development Goals to address concerns about workplace conditions, especially in developing countries. Among the different sectors of any developing economy, agriculture and allied activities have lagged the most in terms of decent work. This paper examines decent work in the fisheries sector in India. Using the National Sample Survey Office data from the Employment and Unemployment Survey of India, the paper arrives at a multidimensional decent work index. The paper finds that labourers belonging to the richer states rank lower in terms of decent work compared to the relatively poorer states, indicating higher inequality in the former regions. It also finds that per capita incomes are well below the poverty line for more than 40% of workers in fisheries.

 

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