ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Urban IndiaSubscribe to Urban India

Rural–Urban Linkages in Bihar

The growth of the manufacturing sector is important for employing a growing labour force and much is also dependent on their skill level. Enterprise surveys in six sample towns of Bihar, a state characterised by slow industrialisation and urbanisation, find evidence of fairly strong rural–urban linkages for manufacturing enterprises. Although the linkages indicate that the manufacturing sector has the maximum potential to create employment by absorbing the surplus labour in the rural areas, it was found that this sector has been languishing in the sample towns. The findings also flag the challenges and areas of growth for industries.

Rural–Urban Disparity in the Standard of Living across States of India

The rural–urban disparity in the standard of living in India is estimated on the basis of per capita consumption or use of non-durable goods, durable consumer goods, and house and living facilities enjoyed by the population of the rural and urban sectors in major states of India in 2011–12. This estimate shows that the rural–urban disparity in the standard of living is the highest in Jharkhand and Odisha and the lowest in Punjab and Kerala. The interstate variation in rural–urban disparity is negatively correlated with per capita state domestic product, degree of urbanisation, level of agricultural development, and per capita amount of remittances received by rural households. It is positively correlated with the percentage of state population below the poverty line.

Integration of Health Services for Older Persons in Urban India

This paper presents a review of the available literature on integrated care for older persons in the urban context in India. Our methodology is a systematically conducted scoping review. Our findings present the epidemiological and demographic profiles of older persons in India, the health services available to them, and the policies and programmes that govern these services. Based on our review, we provide an understanding of the gaps in the available literature and offer some policy recommendations.

Does Citizenship Abate Class?

Drawing on data from a large household survey in Bengaluru, this paper explores the quality of urban citizenship. Addressing theories that have tied the depth of democracy to the quality and effectiveness of citizenship, we develop an index of citizenship and then explore the extent to which citizenship determines the quality of services and infrastructure that households enjoy. Findings show that citizenship and access to services in Bengaluru are highly differentiated, that much of what drives these differences has to do with class, but there is clear evidence that the urban poor are somewhat better in terms of the services they receive than they would be without citizenship. Citizenship, in other words, abates the effects of class.

Fiscal Transfers and Urban Policy

Urban fiscal policy in India remains poorly understood compared to many rapidly urbanising countries. Using underutilised data from the 2001 Census Town Directory and state legislative records, this study examines the level of fiscal transfers from states to urban centres across India to assess the factors which influence urban dependency. The study finds that urban centres depend on state grants for more than two-fifths of revenue, yet dependency levels vary greatly by the state. It presents the first national, empirical evidence of the determinants of city-level dependence on state government in India. The study also contributes to the very sparse literature on public finance for infrastructure in small- and medium-sized towns across developing countries.

Casualisation of Urban Labour Force

The growing size of informal employment, of which casual employment forms a subset, is current concern. It becomes important, then to examine this process of growing casualisation of the workforce and its links with the quickened pace of liberalisation all through the 1990s. A growing literature seeks to demonstrate the links between specific policies of liberalisation, such as deregulation of the labour market, export promotion and trade liberalisation, with the processes of casualisation, informalisation and feminisation of the labour force. In order to be able to understand these issues better, this paper seeks to examine the changes in patterns of industrial employment in light of the statistical evidence available.
Back to Top