ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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The World Order

Analysis of the current and emergent correlation of forces between US–China–Russia points towards a new era of one super-imperialist power coexisting with a triadic form of major inter-imperialist tensions.

BRICS and the New Financial Architecture

The BRICS summit held in October 2016 suggested the possible use of local currency in intra-BRICS trade to lower costs. This article extends this idea and proposes a scheme for setting up a clearing account in local currencies of the BRICS countries. It contends that such a step will provide avenues for generating additional demand within the region while cushioning the member countries against shocks from exchange rate volatility.

Twentieth Century Socialism

The 20th century brand of socialism, following the Bolshevik victory as the prototype of socialisms, has nothing to do with socialism as envisaged by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It can be considered only as one among different varieties of socialism such as guild socialism, anarchist socialism, market socialism, and so on. The Marxian socialism, as a portrait of an alternative society after capital, is based on the "associated mode of production." The fundamental characteristic which separates socialism envisaged by Marx from the prevailing socialism is that Marx's socialism, conceived as an association of free individuals, is a completely de-alienated society with no commodity, no money, no waged/salaried labour, no state, all of which are considered as instruments of exploitation and repression of a class society used to put down the immense majority of the humans. The 20th century socialism is quite aptly recognised as a system of party-state, two avatars. Characteristically, and in total opposition to it, in no discussion of the nature of the society after capital-- that is, socialism--by Marx and Engels we find these two avatars. They disappear along with capital, the last class society.

Ties That Might Bind

The official relationship between India and Japan has now been elevated to a "global" and "strategic partnership." Understanding this qualitative leap in India-Japan ties is less easy than it looks. An origin story of the India-Japan relations explains how its state today is a reflection of the way Japan has changed in the last half a century.

Chechnya : Ground Realities After 9/11

It is incredible that Chechnya with an insignificant population has been waging a protracted battle for independence against a one time superpower without visible or legitimate outside support. What is the nature of support for the Chechens especially after 9/11? What is the nature of this war? Given its regional and Islamic ramifications, the Chechen case fits well into the global war scenario against terror headed by the US and supported by Russia. The issues and problems of Chechnya, therefore, ought to be addressed largely in a global context and not from a narrow regional perspective of the Caucasus or Russia.

Russia: Oil and Politics

Under Vladimir Putin Russia has followed an aggressive energy policy enhancing the contribution of the oil and gas industry in the domestic economy. But as private companies gain dominance through mergers and foreign collaborations, a conflict of interest may emerge between the state and oil barons. Russia has become a major player in the world energy sector and has used oil as a weapon to achieve its foreign policy objectives through energy pipelines.

Russia : Looking Back on Stalin

In the 1980s there had been a surge of anti-Stalinist sentiment in the then Soviet Union and several publications had come out based on hitherto undisclosed material, documents and memoirs. By contrast, the 50th anniversary of Josef Stalin's death on March 5 this year brought to the surface evidence of growing nostalgia among sections of Russians for Stalin.

Russia: Continuing Debate over 'Shock Therapy'

After a decade of change and transition, Russia is only part of the way to the goal that it had set itself of transformation to a developed market economy. The 'shock therapy' that it adopted rather than a gradual reform process appears to have generated some adverse developments in the economy and society.

Demise of Islamism?

Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam by John L Esposito; Oxford University Press, 2002; pp 196, Rs 295. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia by Ahmed Rashid; Orient Longman, 2002; pp 281, Rs 295

Russia's Military Industrial Complex

The end of the cold war combined with the collapse in demand for industrial goods as a result of the sluggish economy have severely constrained attempts to change the production patterns of the military industrial complex towards the manufacture of products for civilian use. With Russia's improving relations with NATO, its military production and trade may get a boost.

The Peasant Question from Marx to Lenin

What is a class? Do peasants constitute a single class? What is the peasant question from the Marxists' revolutionary perspective? These issues are raised in this paper, based on the writings of Marx, Engels and Lenin, above all. The empirical part, mainly on the Russian agrarian scene from the 1890s to 1930, explores if the peasants constituted a cohesive social force free from internal contradictions. There is also a brief discussion on the post-Soviet situation.

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