ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Rural DevelopmentSubscribe to Rural Development

Social Sector Expenditures in the 1990s

This paper focuses on social sector expenditure in the 1990s, and looks at several aspects, including overall levels of allocation, expenditure on health and education and interstate disparities. India's social sector expenditure in the 1990s was lower than that in the 1980s and also less than that of most other developing countries. With India ranking 115th in the Human Development Index, there is an obvious need to step up social sector expenditure and improve fund utilisation.

Mainstreaming Participatory Watershed Development

Community participation is accepted widely as being necessary for sustainable development of watersheds. This study, based on a survey of 36 project villages in five states suggests that there is no shared understanding of the meaning of participation or the means of effectively operationalising it. The paper finds that organising communities to give them collective voice, giving them opportunities to make critical decisions on what the projects will do and making them share a portion of the costs are essential aspects of implementation processes to enhance community participation. A realistic strategy must also seek to change the capabilities and incentives of government bureaucracies themselves by creating situations in which it is in their best interest to work with communities.


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