ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Research and DevelopmentSubscribe to Research and Development

Technology Transfer for Rural Development

Several evaluations of R and D in the CSIR laboratories in the 1970s pointed to the gap between technology development and its application in rural areas and the weak interaction of scientists with external experts and users. There was no attempt to match the mechanisms of technology transfer to the technical and user conditions, to understand the users as systems and to manage technology transfer as an iterative/interactive process. This paper reports a study of the process of R and D management and technology transfer in the CSIR laboratories in recent years focussing on technologies specially being developed for rural areas. It suggests greater involvement of users in technology development and the establishment of a bridge organisation for technology transfer.

Technological Innovations in Small Enterprises

The level of development of a region in terms of educational and technological infrastructure influences the internal and external factors contributing to technological innovations of enterprises. This paper reports a comparative study probing the nature and dimensions of technological innovations carried out by small engineering enterprises in north-east England and in the Bangalore urban district. The pattern of technological innovations in the two regions, the similarities and dissimilarities are analysed.

Building Innovation Capability

Industrialisation and Innovation: The Indian Experience by Nasir Tyabji; Sage Publications,New Delhi, 2000; pp 162, Rs 595.

Research and Development in Small Industry in Karnataka

This paper primarily probes the nature and dimensions of R and D activities carried out in small-scale industries in Karnataka. Quite a number of small firms are informally engaged in R and D in the region. External factors like competitive pressure, technological change and customer needs have driven most of these firms to undertake R and D to achieve quality improvement, cost efficiency and competitiveness. Thus 'incremental innovations' are the primary feature of R and D in small firms and they spend hardly 1 per cent of their turnover for R and D.

Technological Innovation and Economic Development

This paper examines the trends in R and D expenditure in different areas between 1994-95 and 1999-2000 linking this expenditure with the economic importance of the areas. Based on this assessment some suggestions are made for fostering and supporting technological innovation that can lead to accelerated economic growth. A clear policy imperative is that proper measures must be taken to make Indian firms and industries more competitive in a global context. The analysis indicates that agriculture and mainstream industries are the major current drivers of the Indian economy. These are the areas where technology inputs can make India globally more competitive. Bridging the gaps between needs and technology and creating the right conditions for large-scale diffusion of such technologies is one of the great challenges facing Indian R and D.

Public Policy and Expenditure on R and D in Industry

Public sector R and D in India has recorded a negative growth since 1991. Although there has been an increase in private sector investment in R and D, this cannot completely arrest the impact of the withdrawal of public investment and will result in a weakening of India's competitive strength in a rapidly globalising market.
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