ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

PovertySubscribe to Poverty

Poverty Alleviation and Pro-poor Growth in Odisha

During the 2000s, Odisha recorded a faster reduction in the poverty ratio than ever before. This paper examines the pro-poorness of growth in Odisha and among its regions during this time. The pro-poor growth index, poverty equivalent growth, growth incidence curve, and poverty decomposition methods have been used to estimate pro-poor growth. The fast decline in inequality with the growth in household monthly per capita expenditure resulted in a faster reduction in poverty in Odisha. All the regions of rural Odisha and the coastal region of urban Odisha recorded a faster decline in poverty during the period of analysis and were more pro-poor during the 2000s. The panel regression result shows that the districts with high per capita income in the tertiary sector witnessed faster poverty reduction, whereas the primary and secondary sector PCI had no significant impact on poverty reduction in Odisha.

Bad News on the Poverty Front

Rural poverty is now four times that of the urban levels, and it accounts for 90% of the nation’s poor.

The Mission Antyodaya Project

This article outlines the significance of the decentralisation reforms, which turned the dual federation of India into a multi-tier system, mandating systemic outcomes in democracy, accountability, local economic development, and social justice. It also examines how the grand design to strengthen the process of horizontal equity at the local level failed and probes into the potential of the Mission Antyodaya project to give an improved lease of life to the reforms and rural development.

Vulnerability as an Ex Ante Measure of Poverty

Using both rounds of the India Human Development Survey, vulnerability is measured as an ex ante measure of poverty for the Indian households. This article highlights the importance of measuring vulnerability in the overall poverty calculation and found it to be a significant predictor of the future poverty.

Farm Size and Farmers’ Income, Consumption, and Poverty in India

Using unit-level data from the 70th National Sample Survey round Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households, the paper seeks to determine, for major states, the minimum size of cultivated land at which the average monthly income of farmer households from cultivation exceeds their average monthly consumption expenditure and the minimum farm size at which the average monthly income from all sources exceeds their poverty-line-equivalent income. Further, it examines the contribution of different sources towards their total income across farm-size categories and the incidence of poverty among such households. It then estimates the income support for those households that are not able to meet their average monthly consumption expenditure and which are below the poverty line.

Vulnerability Levels of Sewerage Workers in Vijayawada Municipal Corporation

The living and working conditions of sewerage workers in the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation were documented through a sample survey of 98 workers. The Other Backward Classes and Other Caste workers outnumbered those from the Scheduled Castes, refuting the caste-based view of this occupation even while reflecting the precarious employment situation of the unskilled in Andhra Pradesh. A sizeable proportion of workers are on contract or on a timescale without any social security benefits. The working conditions, work-induced health disorders, and non-provision of safety equipment at worksites are the main reasons for the vulnerable working conditions. Low levels of education, lack of skills, and limited opportunities in the labour market restrict their mobility vertically and horizontally. About 70% of them reported financial insecurity.

Pro-poorness of Growth in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

This article presents a comparative analysis of poverty reduction and pro-poorness of growth in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu during the post-reform period. We use the unit-level data of the Consumer Expenditure Surveys of the National Sample Survey Office to estimate the poverty ratio for both rural and urban areas of these states. The first period (1993–94 to 2004–05) recorded a slow poverty reduction, but the second period (2004–05 to 2011–12) witnessed a faster reduction in poverty in rural and urban areas in both the states concerned.

Poverty and Deprivation in India

Building on the asset-based indicator, this paper estimates deprivation in India. The results suggest that there is a difference in the regional ranking of poverty based on the long-term picture of vulnerability provided by the asset-based indicator of deprivation. It also shows that while consumption poverty could identify the poor as a group, it cannot identify who among the poor are suffering from long-term deprivation, thus seeking a prompt policy attention.

 

Household Consumption Expenditure Inequality in Rural India (1993–94 to 2011–12)

The comparative role of determinants of household-level consumption expenditure inequalities (henceforth, inequalities) in rural India between two sub-periods, 1994–2005 and 2005–12 are examined, using three rounds of the National Sample Survey Consumer Expenditure Survey. The changes in the components of consumption expenditure and population characteristics are explored that explain inequalities during the two sub-periods, which represent distinct policy environments. We use both a priori and regression-based decomposition methods for the analysis. We find that there is a complete reversal of the role of education in explaining inequalities. It shifted from being an inequality-increasing factor during 1994–2005 to an inequality-equalising factor during 2005–12. This reversal is induced by decreasing consumption returns to education due to the depressed job market. The role of locational factors has increased in explaining the increase in inequalities over time. The non-food components induce an increase in the overall inequalities via an increased expenditure on durables. The within-group component contributes the most to the level of and change in inequalities.

Kalahandi’s Poverty and Dana Majhi

The course of historical injustice and feudal-led colonisation in Kalahandi remains uncorrected through a structural exclusion of the marginalised.

Skeletal Health Services Cannot Resist Pandemics

The huge interstate disparities and glacial pace of improvement further add to the problems.

 

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