ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Indian Agriculture Over Time

Political Economy of Agricultural Development in India: Policies, Achievements and Concerns by Akina Venkateswarlu, Delhi: Aakar Books, 2021; pp xvii + 554, ₹1,695.

Affordable Rental Housing Complexes Scheme and Private Rental Housing in Indian Cities

Intended or not, projects under the Affordable Rental Housing Complexes scheme will compete with private rental housing options in Indian cities. Examining the scheme guidelines and using data from the National Sample Survey Office, this article establishes the dimensions of this competition, and the chances of ARHC projects to participate in the `1.2 lakh crore rental housing market in urban India. ARHC projects could have better quality/rent ratios as compared to private rental housing. However, their profit-centred models will face locational and management disadvantages, and also reduce tenure security, leading to lack of demand and limited outcomes.

Invest More in Public Healthcare Facilities

Data from National Sample Surveys (71st round, 2014 and 75th round, 2017–18) show that there is a significant increase in the utilisation of public facilities for both outpatient and inpatient services, across empowered action group states and non-EAG states. As a result, there is a dramatic fall in the overall financial burden on patients who would have otherwise used services of private healthcare providers. In light of this evidence, this paper argues that it is prudent to invest more directly to strengthen public healthcare delivery system in India.

Deepening Divides

Changes in the incidence of vegetarianism across time are sought to be analysed by identifying the specific trends at the level of region,caste and class. Divergence in the attitude towards vegetarianism across these axes points towards deepening divides linked to socioeconomic status and cultural-political power inequalities.

India’s Exclusionary Road to Inclusive Development

A historical look at India’s consumer expenditure survey reveals a rather sombre picture of development.

'Provincialising' Vegetarianism

Large-scale survey data are used to question the most public claims about food habits in India. It is found that the extent of overall vegetarianism is much less—and the extent of overall beef-eating much more—than suggested by common claims and stereotypes. The generalised characterisations of “India” are deepened by showing the immense variation of food habits across scale, space, group, class, and gender. Additionally, it is argued that the existence of considerable intra-group variation in almost every social group (caste, religious) makes essentialised group identities based on food practices deeply problematic. Finally, in a social climate where claims about food practices rationalise violence, cultural–political pressures shape reported and actual food habits. Indian food habits do not fit into neatly identifiable boxes.

Data Anomalies in NSSO–EUS Figures, 2011–12

The major rounds of Employment–Unemployment Surveys conducted by the National Sample Survey Office every five years provide a continuous, robust, and reliable source of employment statistics in India. However, a closer analysis of the unit-level figures for the latest round of eus reveals disparities in the details of the industry–occupation information.

India's 'Poverty of Numbers'

The number of "poor" derived by applying price adjustment to an old consumption basket, which is largely what official poverty measures have done, are very different from estimates based on actual consumption baskets that have changed over time. For instance, the share of cereals in household expenditure halved between 1993-94 and 2011-12 in rural areas. In the light of this, we ask if all expenditure would be on food, what percentage of the population would be unable to meet the prescribed calorie requirement? Adding a "minimum" level of expenditure on clothing-bedding-footwear, fuel and light, and conveyance to the "derived" sum of food expenditure provides a second counterfactual. Similarly, the cumulative addition of expenditure on other consumer goods and services provides further counterfactual scenarios.

Importance of Landowning Non-cultivating Households

There is an increasing importance of landowning households that do not cultivate and a significant presence of urban households owning rural land, which constrains the growth of the agrarian economy, as such households have low incentives to invest in agriculture, and tend to use land for residential purposes, reducing the cropped area. Agricultural labour households tend to lease in land and become cultivators.

Doubling Farmers' Incomes by 2022

How realistic is the objective of the Government of India to double the income of farmers by 2022? Is there a precedent? From estimates of change in income of agricultural households over the period 2003-13, this article suggests what needs to be done to achieve a doubling of real incomes. A focus on income from cultivation alone will be inadequate. Policy aimed at increasing net income from animal farming will be key.

Agrarian Question in India

Using the latest National Sample Survey Office data on land distribution and use, questions of agrarian change in India are revisited. With reducing landholding size in general, the increasing unviability of such small plots, and increasing numbers of "effectively" landless households, the larger questions of employment and sectoral shifts are flagged. There is still no clear transition away from agriculture.

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