ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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CPC's Fourth Generation Ideology

Hu Jintao, the new general secretary of the Communist Party of China, and his colleagues, who constitute the party's fourth generation leadership, have been armed by Jiang Zemin with a new ideological tool called Sange Daibiao (the Three Represents) which, like Deng Xiaoping�s Gaige Kaifang (Reform and Open Door), seems to be slowly capturing the imagination of the Chinese people. This formulation is seen by the left as an outrageous departure from Marxism. The right is equally disappointed by the refusal to grant full freedom to the propertied classes. Yet the Three Represents are carefully crafted guidelines for the party to face the challenges of the emerging world and to take the country forward in the new century.

S K Rudra, C F Andrews and M K Gandhi

In the second decade of the last century, as the world limped back from a long-drawn war and India found itself on the verge of a new wave of anti-imperialist struggle, a strange friendship was forged between three unusual men. This paper looks at the friendship between Mahatma Gandhi, C F Andrews and S K Rudra against the backdrop of such tumultuous times. Through letters and records that still stand as testimony to their friendship, this paper analyses issues of freedom of choice, and implications of nationality.

Discourse and Practice of Singhalese Nationalism

The discourse of decentralisation and of village reform which forms an important element of Singhalese mass politics and nationalism today began in the 1930s and attained its zenith in the last 25 years. This article explores the circumstances that led to the emergence of ethnic nationalism that has transformed the village from a basis of Buddhism and a repository of profound knowledge into the basis of the Sinhala nation and the repository of the nation's destiny and strength

Nationhood and Displacement in Indian Subcontinent

The journey of nations begins with the construction of 'self', the basic criteria for which is a preconceived homogeneity. But achieving such a homogeneity proves elusive and the search becomes an exercise in peeling an onion, which involves the shedding of people who do not fit the constructed identity or who question the accepted framework. This in turn prompts the construction of minority identities which strive to build a majority for themselves. In the subcontinent the search for nationhood has always focused on ethnicity, culture and religion, but what has emerged is a heterogeneous mix of people who should have represented diversity but now have one culture, the middle class culture and one identity, the middle class identity.

The Icon of Mother in Late Colonial North India

In the metaphor of nationalism, it is the female body and the many faces of 'mother' - motherland, mother tongue, motherhood - have served as the most universal and potent symbols of imagining the nation. The symbol of mother was especially effective because it could take on different meanings in different contexts. This paper examines how and why the metaphor of mother was used in multiple fields in late colonial north India, with a special focus on the UP. Hindu publicists of UP particularly worked the icon of the mother into narratives of nation, language and cow, thereby sharpening the contours of community identity.

On Nationalism and Ethnicity

Postcolonial Insecurities: India, Sri Lanka, and the Question of Nationhood by Sankaran Krishna; University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis and London, 1999; pp 296, $ 22.95, paperback.

On the Kashmir Question

The movement for Kashmir has as one of its underlying motifs, religion. In this paper, the author seeks to historically analyse the many ways religion has been put to serve different purposes. Influenced more by the rituals and doctrines that are particular and contingent in time, the universal and eternal component of Islam seems to have been all but forgotten, more so by those fighting for 'Kashmir', subdued by what the author labels as the 'Arkoun-Kuran' effect - when the unthinkable is gradually transformed over time into the unthought. South Asia has seen the coexistence and synthesis of Hindu and Muslim cultures and traditions - only a renewed awareness of this can reverse the Arkoun-Kuran effect.

Who Is the Third that Walks Behind You?

I read Aditya Nigam’s observations on an epistemology of the dalit critique of modernity with great interest. His formulations are both fascinating and suggestive, therefore, I would like to complicate them. Firstly, while I accept that dalit politics and ideologies represent the “problematic ‘third term’ that continuously challenges the common sense of the secular modern”, I am not sure that these exist as an ‘absent presence’; or that they advance a notion of citizenship that is premised on the notion of the community as a rights-bearing subject. It seems to me that the non-brahmin, lower caste engagement with the ‘secular modern’ does two things: it contends with the contradictions of modernity, as Nigam so ably demonstrates, but it also dips beyond and across the wide arc of the secular-modern to articulate an expressive ideology and world view that is still recognisably modern. I would like to illustrate this with reference to the thought of Periyar Ramasamy.

Sources of Social Change in India

Social Change in Modern India by M N Srinivas; University of California Press, Kerkeley, 1966; pp 194; $ 5.00.

Miles to Go

The Nehru era is gone, something else must take its place and something is aborning, however unconscionable the time taken by it.

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