ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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The Work of Theory

Tackling the question of how to recalibrate the relationship between history and theory in our favour without falling into the trap of either an unqualified universalism or a naïve historicism, this article proposes that we move from the position of being a critic of Western theory to that of being a composer and assembler of a new theory from different sources and different histories.

Twentieth Century Socialism

The 20th century brand of socialism, following the Bolshevik victory as the prototype of socialisms, has nothing to do with socialism as envisaged by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It can be considered only as one among different varieties of socialism such as guild socialism, anarchist socialism, market socialism, and so on. The Marxian socialism, as a portrait of an alternative society after capital, is based on the "associated mode of production." The fundamental characteristic which separates socialism envisaged by Marx from the prevailing socialism is that Marx's socialism, conceived as an association of free individuals, is a completely de-alienated society with no commodity, no money, no waged/salaried labour, no state, all of which are considered as instruments of exploitation and repression of a class society used to put down the immense majority of the humans. The 20th century socialism is quite aptly recognised as a system of party-state, two avatars. Characteristically, and in total opposition to it, in no discussion of the nature of the society after capital-- that is, socialism--by Marx and Engels we find these two avatars. They disappear along with capital, the last class society.

Australia in India

If the 1990s marked an intensification of the process of `globalisation', within the policy discourse of the higher education sector that process has manifested itself through the idea of the `international university'. In part, internationalisation implies a redefinition of higher education as a globally marketed commodity or as an export oriented `industry'. These developments are examined by means of an analysis of the internationalisation of Australian education, and the operational procedures, strategies, and expansionist market objectives of Australian higher education institutions in India. It is argued that, under the hegemony of neo-liberal ideology, these international linkages are emerging as a result of the transformation and restructuring of the higher education sector in both nations.

Marx on Capital's Globalisation

Drawing on Hegel, in his Parisian Manuscripts of 1844 Marx first attempted to show how capitalism not only contained within itself conditions for its own negation, but also created elements of the new society that would supersede it. Under capitalism, labour, like other factors, too is converted to a commodity - 'surplus labour' with exchange value; while production is not bound by limited needs or needs that limit it. Thus, the more capitalism develops, the more it is compelled to produce on a scale which has little to do with immediate demands but depends instead on a continuous enlargement of the world market - leading to 'capital's globalisation'. Yet, even as capitalism seeks to enlarge itself, it creates its own grave diggers - the proletariat who finally revolt against the system.
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