ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Literary Cultures in North East India

The history of a community’s literature has usually been inseparable from the history of the language in which the literature is produced. In North East India, the problem arises in the case of those communities which have a rich and vibrant oral tradition, but no written texts. When writers from these communities adopt a literary language which is alien to their culture, they have to understand the historical conditions that enable them to use that language. The literary cultures in this region have witnessed a gradual shrinking of frontiers from the trans-regional vernaculars to a confined and limited regional space, where atomisation of cultures is more visible than development of cosmopolitan vernaculars.

Why Wage Differences Exist across Sectors?

Inter-industry differences in wages are substantial, and over time, they do not seem to be disappearing. Productivity is a determinant of wage differences across industries, though the association between them is not very strong at the aggregate level or for intermediate goods, capital goods, and consumer non-durables. Trade liberalisation enhances productivity and wages at the aggregate level, and also in the case of basic goods and capital goods. However, in an attempt to raise productivity, firms may extract more work from those who are already engaged, and tend to pay them less than their due share in certain industry groups. Contractualisation and feminisation show similar effects for all the industry groups except the intermediate goods industries, and has a worsening effect on wages and also productivity.

Employment-Unemployment Situation in the Nineties

Based on a comparative analysis of the NSS Employment-Unemployment Surveys for 1993-94 and 1999-2000, this paper examines, at the all-India level, the changes in: the size and structure of workforce; the extent of unemployment and underemployment; labour productivity and days worked; and wage earnings per worker and per head of population in rural and urban India. Key results include a slower growth of workforce relative to that of population; a reduction in the share and size of the workforce in agriculture and in community, social and personal services; and widespread gains in labour productivity getting translated into equally widespread and significant growth in average wage earnings per worker and per capita.

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