ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Caste and the Metropolitan University

In January the Hyderabad Central University (HCU) rusticated 10 dalit students and registered police complaints against them for resorting to violence on the campus. While the students were confined in a police lock-up for six days, several groups unsuccessfully attempted to persuade the university authorities to reconsider its decision. The Andhra Pradesh High Court has directed the university to take an immediate decision on the appeal filed by the students. What caused the incident and what is at stake in this conflict?

Oppression and Denial

Progressive legislation and constitutional safeguards have done little to rid the social order of the widespread evil of caste discrimination. As this paper argues, taboos imposed by tradition and belief still exert their stranglehold across most of India, impose social obligations and economic deprivation on several of those in the dalit category, and as borne out in surveys conducted across four Indian states.

Educational Inequalities among Scheduled Castes in Maharashtra

Despite a century old struggle for social and political reform and independence, literacy levels remain discouragingly low among substantial sections of the scheduled castes in Maharashtra. However, the rise in literacy rates has been marked by variations within the scheduled castes as borne out by census reports from 1961 onwards. The variations are based on levels of development, the migrancy factor and willingness to take on newer occupations, as well as traditions of hierarchy that continue to persist in the social system.

Should Class Be the Basis for Recognising Backwardness

Castes were the building blocks of Hindu social structure in precolonial India. But with the introduction and development of the new capitalist forces of production these blocks have undergone a fundamental change. From being a hereditary unity of caste and occupations they nave become a unity ofthisvld contradiction plus the new contradiction of caste and class. This basic contradiction in Indian society can be resolved neither by subjectively subtracting the old contradiction from the new one nor by excluding either class or caste from the new set of opposites.

Protection and Inequality among Backward Groups

Backward Groups Uma Ramaswamy Although the Scheduled Castes have been considered a homogeneous group, they are internally differentiated in terms of occupation, numerical strength, geographical spread and ritual status. While the awareness of a shared status stands them in good stead vis-a-vis the upper castes, the traditional cleavages and rivalry within have shown no signs of attentuation. This paper examines the manner in which the Mala and the Madiga, the two major untouchable castes of Andhra, have progressed during the three decades of preferential treatment. Any policy of protection and preference which operates along an ascriptive principle will inevitably bring to the fore micro- cleavages even as it succeeds at the macro level, as it has done in the case of the Mala and Madiga, THE Government of India is constitutionally pledged to uplift the backward sections of society. Caste and tribe, the basic units of Indian social structure, have been used by the government as major criteria for identifying backwardness. Clusters of castes with seemingly similar socio-economic status came to be treated as backward for the purpose of preference in education, government employment and election to political office. The Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes are the three major backward categories selected as target groups for development. The state has naturally been concerned to motivate the members of these castes to take advantage of the benefits. Rules and regulations governing their distribution have been relaxed from time to time to ensure that they actually reach the target groups. During the initial stages when the response was poor, the wisdom of the policy came under question. But the picture today is far different. The Scheduled Castes, for example, are not only taking advantage of the benefits earmarked for them, but are conscious of their privileged status as constitutionally protected people (Ramaswamy 1984).' Yet, the very success of the policy has brought in its wake a new set of problems. While, on the one hand, protectionism attempts to moderate the inequality between the Scheduled Castes and the rest, on the other hand it has engendered inequality among the Scheduled Castes themselves. The exploitation of benefits by some sections of these castes has pushed to the fore the differences rather than the uniformities among them. Obviously, it was not envisaged that some castes may be better placed to take advantage of the benefits than others. It was assumed that groups identified as backward have a measure of homogeneity in terms of their socio-economic characteristics. There was insufficient recognition of the fact that this homogeneity is only relative, that the Scheduled Castes could have a lot in common in relation to the upper castes and yet be differentiated amongst themselves. For its part, the administration which was under pressure to show results readily catered to those segments which aggressively exploited the opportunity. Under these conditions, it was but natural that the more advanced segments would take greater advantage of the benefits and steadily enhance the cleavage within the Scheduled Castes.

Scheduled Caste and Tribe Students in Higher Education-A Study of an IIT

Scheduled Caste and Tribe Students in Higher Education A Study of an IIT Viney Kirpal Nalini Swamidasan Amitabha Gupta Raj K Gupta This paper presents the results of a study, the third in a series, of academic and social adjustment of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe students in the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Section I of the paper traces the relationship between the backgrounds of SC/ST students and their academic performance, while section II focuses on the two main problem areas for these students. The recommendations of the study are set out in the final section.

Scheduled Castes and Education

January 16, 1982 water problem will continue to worsen in the coming years. Israel, therefore, has designs on the neighbouring Arab water resources like the Jordan river tributaries; Yarmuk river which originates in Syria and touches the Israeli frontier along a few kilometers before meeting the Jordan river; Litani river in South Lebanon and the Nile. In the West Bank, Israel has dug deep wells close to the Jordan river tributaries and springs, drying up the Arab wells and luining agriculture. Recently, it has staked a claim on the Yarmuk waters, ostensibly for the inhabitants of the West Bank, but really for the Jewish settlements in the West Bank. The Israeli incursions into Southern Lebanon are also guided by the calculations of acquiring a control over Lebanon's most important source of water. And after Camp David, Sadat himself pro posed 'the Peace Canal' to bring the Waters of the Nile to Negev.

Emancipation of Scheduled Castes and Tribes Some Suggestions

Emancipation of Scheduled Castes and Tribes: Some Suggestions L C Jain An overwhelming majority of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in India labour wider acute social and economic disabilities, Drawing heavily from the latest Report of the Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and of the Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, this article details the crucial factors that have contributed to these disabilities

Scheduled Caste Entrants into Banking Industry

Recruitment of scheduled castes varies from bank to bank; some are still lagging for behind while others are trying to catch up with the level stipulated by the government.

The Harijans Worsening Plight

The Harijans' Worsening Plight Leela Visaria THIS is the first book in the series of empirical studies, planned by the Madras Institute of Development Studies,, to enhance understanding of the "urgent problems faced by the Government and people of the State". The study k intended to assist the concerned departments of the Government in strengthening and/or reorienting their programmes for the development of the Harijan community. Since the information collected by the Censuses on the scheduled castes and tribes pertains only to the basic demographic and economic characteristics, an empirical study of the Harijans, which goes beyond the Census, is likely to arouse interest among social scientists as well.


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