ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Indian Agriculture Needs a Holistic Policy Framework, Not Pro-market Reforms

The Indian agricultural sector has long suffered a plethora of structural infirmities that have contributed to the continuing crisis in the sector. While India did well to achieve food self-sufficiency, after a couple of decades of chronic food shortages following independence, this was achieved...

The Smallholder in the Agriculture Market Reforms in India

Smallholders suffer from low marketable surplus, poor holding capacity, low bargaining power and huge transaction cost in marketing their produce. Agricultural markets in India have been subject to reform processes with the stated intention of improving market access and participation for the primary producers. The three legislations introduced in 2020 are the latest in that direction. This article critically analyses market reforms in India with respect to smallholders’ bargaining position. It also provides insights on the ways and means to improve market participation and the bargaining position of smallholders.

Indian State and the Future of Agriculture

The government intervention puts Indian agriculture in the grip of corporates.

Economic Reforms and Agricultural Growth in India

It was argued that economic liberalisation would ensure a favourable shift in the terms of trade for agriculture in India, enabling producers to plough back surplus from cultivation to make long-term improvements on land, and raise agricultural productivity and growth rate. Contrary to expectations, there was no noticeable improvement in the terms of trade for agriculture during the reform period. Moreover, decline in capital formation in agriculture, inadequate expenditure on irrigation and extension services in rural areas, and a dearth of cheap institutional credit, resulted in a slowdown of agricultural growth and heightened livelihood insecurity for a substantial proportion of those dependent on agriculture.

Don't Forget the Tortoise!

 Indian Agriculture: Four Decades of Development by G S Bhalla and Gurmail Singh; Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2001; pp xiv+ 309, Rs 450.

Capital Formation in Indian Agriculture

Is capital formation in Indian agriculture really declining? How and to what extent has it affected growth in agriculture? These questions have been at the centre stage of a debate sparked off in the late 1980s. This paper re-visits this debate by dissecting different components of capital formation, by digging into the very concept and estimation procedures followed in the Indian system of National Accounts vis-à-vis the UN system. The study, after re-defining and re-estimating trends in capital formation in agriculture, concludes that the situation is definitely not good, but not as alarming as is sometimes made out to be. This is because of the increasing share and role of private sector investments in agriculture over time. And the trend in that has remained robust despite decline in public sector capital formation in agriculture, and despite the fact that public sector investment has an inducement effect on private sector capital formation. This only goes to suggest that private sector investment in agriculture has been increasingly influenced by other factors, especially the terms of trade. And this has implications for the structure of growth within agriculture.
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