ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

GenderSubscribe to Gender

The Role of Gender and Caste in Accessing Livelihood Opportunities in India

Against the backdrop of low and declining female labour force participation in India, we use a large, publicly available tehsil-level data set for several Indian states to comment on women’s barriers to accessing livelihood opportunities. Data from the socio-economic caste census seems to indicate that as the proportion of lower-caste households in a tehsil increases, the participation of female heads of households in economic activities, which improve labour force participation at the bottom of the pyramid, also increases. This is significant given the largely informal labour force and inadequate job creation in the formal economy. Lower-caste women may readily pursue informal livelihoods suggesting barriers for upper-caste women, crucial amid limited formal job opportunities in an economy dominated by informality.

Uneven Gains and Bottom-50 Districts

Using data from the National Family Health Survey­-5 (2019–21), it is found that younger individuals (20–40 years) have made impressive gains in education. The average young Indian has a high school education—much better than their mother’s generation that went to school for only three years.

Towards a Theorisation of Emerging New Sociality in Western Uttar Pradesh

Badalta Gaon, Badalta Dehat: Nayi Samajikta ka Uday by Satendra Kumar, Oxford University Press, 2018; pp xxii + 156, `275 (paperback).

The Lived Experience of the Law in India

Law, Justice and Human Rights in India: Short Reflections by Kalpana Kannabiran, Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 2021; pp 416, `1,500.

Gendering Art

The all-women Pentholppavakkooth troupe is an attempt at challenging patriarchy not only outside but also within the art form of shadow puppetry in Kerala.

How COVID-19 Deepened the Gender Fault Lines in India's Labour Markets

India has witnessed low levels of women’s labour force participation over the last four decades, with gaps of nearly 40 percentage points between the proportion of men and women in the labour force. Recent high-frequency data shows that COVID-19-induced lockdowns have had a disproportionate impact on women’s employment. Women bore the immediate impact of lockdowns, with 37.1% losing jobs (versus 27.7% men) in April 2020 and forming 73% of job losses in April 2021. Employment recovery has been slower for women. Prevailing sociocultural factors such as the increased burden of unpaid domestic work, gender digital divides, mobility restrictions, and the lack of institutional support at workplaces are discouraging women’s return to work. Even in January 2022, women’s labour force is 9.4% lower than January 2020 versus 1.6% for men. In this scenario, governments can support through gender-sensitive job-creation plans to expand women’s employment in the public and micro, small and medium enterprise sectors, and incentivise women’s entrepreneurship.

Adivasi Mahasabhas

Adivasi mahasabhas are organised across Assam to politically mobilise the Adivasi communities. The paper argues that in contemporary Assam, Adivasi struggles are not limited to the issues of identity but through the mahasabhas, the student associations are claiming citizenship, economic and constitutional rights. While resisting the larger “Assamese” identity on the one hand, the Adivasi student associations also reproduce prevailing gender inequalities within the movement. The present study analyses the All Adivasi Women’s Association of Assam, which seeks to bring together the issues of women and labour to counter the patriarchy of both trade unions and student movements.

Two Steps Up and One Step Down and a Few in Between

Mutinies for Equality: Contemporary Developments in Law and Gender in India edited by Tanja Herklotz and Siddharth Peter de Souza, Cambridge University Press, 2021; pp vii+295, `989 (hardbound).

Pages

Back to Top