ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Freire and Experiments in Conscientisation in a Bangladesh Village

In the 1970s most NGOs in developing countries adopted Freire's model of conscientisation to help the poor take up group action against forces resisting their development. In the late 1980s, however, this approach was discarded in favour of a micro-finance based growth-oriented one. This paper discusses BRAC, an NGO that continued its work amongst the poor, adopting Freire's conscientisation model with some modifications.

Elementary Mathematics

This article discusses the nature of the difficulty in learning and teaching elementary mathematics from the viewpoint of the psychology of learning, focusing on some key topics such as number operation and algebra and how children learn these concepts. The paper also seeks to examine the reasons why many topics in school mathematics seem difficult and to make the point that what is difficult can still be taught and learnt. What is required is often the coordination of a culturally developed sign system with an intuitive base. This coordination is a process that happens naturally and spontaneously if children are given opportunities and situations they find motivating.

Economic Growth and Social Security

Social and Economic Security in India, edited by S Mahendra Dev, Piush Antony, V Gayathri and R P Mamgain; Institute for Human Development, 2001; pp 523, Rs 750 (HB)

Tedium of Schooling

Social Implications of Schooling: Knowledge, Pedagogy and Consciousness by Avijith Pathak; Rainbow Publishers, New Delhi, 2002; pp 260, hardback Rs 325

Understanding Madrasas

The modern madrasas established during colonial times aimed to guard the private sphere of Muslims from modernist intrusions and within the private sphere they engaged in hegemonic representation of the Muslim masses. Contemporary madrasas continue to use the colonial dichotomy of public and private spheres to resist state intrusions in their pursuit of a particular kind of religious education. Introducing modern education in madrasas would defeat their very purpose.

Minority Education Rights: Supreme Court Judgment

The recent Supreme Court judgment on the educational rights of minorities does not adequately reflect international trends for strengthening protection of minority rights. There is a need to rethink and reformulate minority rights, and enact a central law providing for multi-culturalism and pluralism along with interculturalism in all educational institutions, with the provision that minorities will have unfettered right to regulate their admission without resorting to exclusion of non-minorities.

Education Guarantee Scheme and Primary Schooling in Madhya Pradesh

This paper presents the results of a field study of public schools in Betul and Dewas districts of Madhya Pradesh. The study aims to document the functioning of public schools, whether created by the Education Guarantee Scheme or not and to understand the consequences of the reforms on the links between education and rural society and on the development of private schools. While the results may not be representative of all of rural Madhya Pradesh, they provide an accurate picture of the situation in two areas atypical of the settings targeted by EGS, viz, adivasi villages and dalit hamlets.

Life Cycle Concerns:Ineffectively Addressed

The lifetime concerns of individuals, though a key focus of the Budget for 2003-04, are nevertheless addressed in such a way that human capital - the engine of growth - will not be accumulated in an equitable or efficient manner.

Social Capital and Collective Action

With the retreat of the interventionist state, development is often perceived as a product of partnership between the state and civil society with increasing emphasis on people's participation at the grass roots. Using a framework of collective action based upon social capital, this paper examines whether social capital is important for successful development outcomes at the grass roots in forest protection and watershed development. Three villages of Adilabad district in Andhra Pradesh are the focus of the study.

On Saffronisation of Education

It is usually believed by exponents of Hindutva that theirs is a bold revolt against western hegemony, but in fact it is an imperfect and slavish imitation of that hegemonic system, a caricature.

Brain Drain and Education Systems

The phenomenon of brain drain, now deemed to have reached irreversible proportions is but a symptom of a wider crisis afflicting the Indian education system. Ills that today beset the system can only be stemmed by a revamp of policies, an overhaul of spent bureaucratic attitudes.

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