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An Empirical Study of the Supreme Court's Composition

An Empirical Study of the Supreme Court's Composition

There are hardly any data-based studies that tell us who Indian Supreme Court judges are, or where they come from. A study on the composition of the Supreme Court between July 1985 and May 2010 reveals continuity with little change, compared to information collated in the late 1960s. So even if variations emerge in the age at which justices have been appointed to the Supreme Court or in the manner in which some states have been allocated "seats" or in the number of justices who have studied abroad, very few women have become Supreme Court judges.

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An Empirical Study of the Supreme Court’s Composition

Abhinav Chandrachud

There are hardly any data-based studies that tell us who Indian Supreme Court judges are, or where they come from. A study on the composition of the Supreme Court between July 1985 and May 2010 reveals continuity with little change, compared to information collated in the late 1960s. So even if variations emerge in the age at which justices have been appointed to the Supreme Court or in the manner in which some states have been allocated “seats” or in the number of justices who have studied abroad, very few women have become Supreme Court judges.

Abhinav Chandrachud (abhinav.chandrachud@gmail.com) graduated from the Harvard Law School and is now with a law firm in the United States.

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T
he process of appointing judges to the Supreme Court of India has spurred widespread debate. If the jurisprudence of the 1970s was defined by a struggle for custody of the Constitution, the jurisprudence of the last two decades has been delineated by a tussle for custody of the court’s composition. It has become trite to say that the advice of the “collegium” on j udicial nominees has metamorphosed from “consultative” to binding, in a struggle over two decades spanning the cases of S P Gupta1 to Re Article 143.2 However, despite widespread public debate concerning the process of appointment, scarce empirical data exist which tell us who the Supreme Court judges are, or where they come from.

In a study concluded in 1967, George Gadbois (1970) found that the 36 Indian justices who had served on the Supreme Court of India between 1950 and 1967 were a “remarkably homogeneous group of men”, that the “prototypic” judge on the Supreme Court was educated in England, appointed to the high court at age 47 and then to the Supreme Court at age 57 (Gadbois 1969: 317), and that regional representation was sought to be maintained on the Supreme Court “particularly from the oldest and most venerable High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras” (ibid: 329). But has the profile of the prototypic judge on the Supreme Court changed since then? This paper concludes that it has, even if only by a fraction.

This paper maps the composition of the Supreme Court as it has reconstituted itself between July 1985 and May 20103 using its chief justices only as convenient reference points of comparison. Accordingly, this study examines the composition of the court from the time justice P N Bhagwati assumed the office of the chief justice of India in July 1985, until chief justice S H Kapadia assumed office in May 2010.4 Appendix 1 (p 76) sets out data concerning 1275 judges who served on the Supreme Court between 1985 and 2010, and Appendix 2 (p 77) maps the composition of the court during the terms of each of 22 chief justices of India during that period. The information for this study has almost exclusively been obtained from the website of the S upreme Court of India.6 Additionally, information for nine7 judges who served on the court during this period, not readily available, has been obtained from various sources.8

Broadly speaking, the study yields the following observations:

(1) The average age of appointment to the Supreme Court has i ncreased, while the average age of appointment to the high courts has decreased between 1985 and 2010, and consequently, Supreme Court judges on average have greater high court experience but shorter Supreme Court tenures. (2) The High

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Courts of Bombay, Allahabad and Karnataka have been amongst the most well represented on the Supreme Court. Andhra Pradesh and Madras have, in more recent times, had relatively fewer judges on the court when compared to the states of Bihar and Delhi. (3) The overwhelming majority of judges on the Supreme Court today have served as chief justice of at least one (if not more than one) high court. (4) There is evidence of between 3 and 4 consistently non-Hindu seats on the court. (5) Educationally, the number of Supreme Court judges who studied law abroad has fallen substantially from what the figure was in Gadbois’ time.

This study makes no substantive claims about the Supreme Court. Indeed, the court has widely been recognised as a remarkably independent, objective and unbiased institution. This study merely attempts to gain a better understanding of the court’s identity, of who its judges are, where they came from, and how the court’s identity and composition have changed over the last 25 years, if at all.9

Age of Appointment/Tenure

Between July 1985 and May 2010, the Supreme Court has had 127 judges of whom 22 have been chief justices of India.10 Justice K G Balakrishnan had the longest tenure as chief justice during this time at a little over three years and three months, while chief justice K N Singh had the shortest tenure of 17 days.11 To put these statistics into perspective, consider that the American supreme court’s newest associate justice, Elena Kagan, was only the 112th appointment on the court in its history spanning over two centuries.

Table 1 sets out the average age at which Supreme Court judges were appointed first to the high court and then the Supreme Court, and compiles other data concerning judges during each chief justice’s term.12

Table 1: Career Trajectory

Chief Justice’s Tenure Average HC Average SC High Court Average Judges Who Served
Appointment Appointment Chief Justices Tenure of HC CJs as CJ of More Than
Age Age (%) (No of Years) One HC (%)
Bhagwati 44.2 56.9 46 2.4 0
Pathak 42.2 58.8 44 1.7 4.7
Venkatramiah 43.6 58.9 30 1.3 4.3
Mukherjee 43.7 59.1 28 1.3 4
Misra 43.2 58.9 38 2.1 11.5
Singh 43.2 59 34 2.1 13
Kania 42.3 58.8 41 1.8 12.5
Sharma 42.3 58.8 39 1.9 13
Venkatchaliah 44.7 58.9 43 1.9 13
Ahmadi 45 58 69 1.6 30.4
Verma 45.07 58.9 73 1.7 30.4
Punchi 45.4 59.2 80 1.7 30
Anand 45.9 58.8 65 1.9 15.3
Bharucha 46 58.9 69 1.5 7.6
Kirpal 46.2 59.1 69 1.3 15.3
Pattnaik 46.4 59.1 66 1.4 16.6
Khare 46.6 59 70 1.2 20.8
Babu 46.7 59.1 69 1.2 21.7
Lahoti 46 59.1 76 1.9 38
Sabharwal 45.2 59.1 88 1.7 36
Balakrishnan 44.9 59.6 93 1.5 30
Kapadia 45.1 59.8 93 1.5 27.5

Between 1985 and 2010, the average age at which a Supreme Court judge was originally appointed to the high court was approximately 44.7 years, almost three years younger than Gadbois’ “prototypic” judge. In the last 10 years the average age of appointment to the high court has been 45.9 years. The average age of appointment to the Supreme Court between 1985 and 2010 was 58.9 years. The prototypic Indian judge over the last five years is appointed to the high court at age 45, and then to the Supreme Court at age 59.

High court judges presently retire at 62,13 whereas Supreme Court judges retire at 65,14 although this may soon change (Chandrachud 2010). Between 1985 and 2010 the average tenure of a Supreme Court judge previously on the high court was 14 years, and the average tenure on the Supreme Court was seven years. In more recent times, however, while the average term that a Supreme Court judge spends previously on a high court has remained 14 years, the average Supreme Court tenure has gone down to six years. The data suggest that while judges are being appointed at a later age to the high courts, the insistence on lengthy high court experience as before is perhaps affecting the length of their tenure on the Supreme Court. Consider, for example, that two of the latest appointments to the Supreme Court, justices H L Gokhale and G S Misra were each appointed to the high courts almost at 45, but to the Supreme Court at age 61.

In the last 25 years, justice N P Singh has had the longest high court tenure (19 years), justice Fathima Beevi the shortest high court tenure (six years) and the shortest15 natural Supreme Court tenure (two years) (justice Beevi was also one of the rare judges who in the last 25 years retired from the high court, but was still appointed to the Supreme Court).16 Between 1985 and 2010, chief justice P N Bhagwati not merely had the longest Supreme Court tenure (13 years) but also had the rare distinction of a longer Supreme Court term than a high court tenure, while chief justice R S Pathak was the youngest Supreme Court judge to have originally been appointed to a high court, at age 37.

Regional Representation

There is evidence of regional representation on the Supreme Court, and some states have, over the last 25 years, consistently had two-three seats on the court, but never more. A regional distribution of seats on the Supreme Court is often evidenced by the fact that when a judge from one state retires, his retirement is

o ften followed by the appointment of another judge belonging to the same state.

For example, during chief justice K G Balakrishnan’s tenure17: justice Ashok Bhan’s Punjab and Haryana seat went to S S Nijjar, justice G P Mathur’s Allahabad seat to B S Chauhan, justice Tarun Chatterjee’s Calcutta seat to A K Ganguly,18 justice Arijit Passayat’s Orissa seat to A K Pattnaik, justice H K Sema’s Assam seat to Mukundakam Sharma, justice Naolekar’s Madhya Pradesh seat to Deepak Verma, justice A R Lakshmanan’s Madras seat to P Sathasivam. Similar evidence exists of appointments to the Supreme Court between 1985 and 2010 which appear to have been made to compensate retirement from a state.

Table 3 (p 74) reflects the share of seats that states in India have had during the tenure of each chief justice since 1985. The share of

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seats can be affected by: (i) retirement (or in rare cases, death19/ resignation20); (ii) appointment. Consequently, a judge is counted as having had a “seat” on the Supreme Court during each chief justice’s term from the time of his appointment, until retirement/ resignation/death.21 Bombay and Allahabad have had the largest share on the court with between two and three seats each on the court during the term of any chief justice. Similarly, some regions or states have had more seats on the court than others, although these figures have not remained constant. For example, Rajasthan’s share on the court went up from one seat to three seats during justice K G Balakrishnan’s term with the appointment of justices Singhvi, Lodha and Misra; during justice A S Anand’s term Orissa’s share on the Supreme Court increased from one seat to three seats, with the appointment of justices Arijit Passayat and Mohapatra, and Karnataka’s share also increased from one seat to three seats with the appointment of Santosh Hegde and Shivraj Patil. On the other hand, some states have not had a great share of seats on the Supreme Court. Only four-five judges each have been appointed to the Supreme Court between July 1985 and May 2010 from the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Haryana, Orissa and Assam.22 Himachal Pradesh has had only one judge on the court at least in the last 25 years, with the appointment of justice L S Panta during chief justice Y K Sabharwal’s tenure, while Sikkim and the newer states of Jharkhand, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh have had none.23

The prevalent view appears to be that when a judge assumes the office of chief justice of India, on principle he vacates the seat of the region he represents on the court. Accordingly, during the terms of some chief justices, an additional judge from the chief justice’s home state was sometimes appointed to the court, with the end result that the state’s representation on the court went up by one seat during that term if the chief justice were counted as belonging to that state. For example, during justice K G Balakrishnan’s term, Kerala’s share of seats, during justice Khare’s term, Allahabad’s share, and during justice Kirpal’s term, Delhi’s share, during justice Ahmadi’s term, the share of Gujarat, during Justice Kania’s term, Bombay’s share, during j ustice Pathak’s term, Allahabad’s share of seats on the court, all went up to three. During justice Anand’s term Jammu and Kashmir’s share of seats on the court went up to two. And these were all courts from which the respective chief justices originated.

It is beyond the scope of this paper to engage in unsubstantiated speculation of whether the regional background of the chief justice or of the collegium made any difference whatsoever to the state or region from which a judge was picked for appointment to the Supreme Court during that term.

Table 2 tells us [in column (1)] the total number of appointments made to the Supreme Court from each state between 1985 and 2010. However, column 1 does not give us a complete snapshot of regional representation on the Supreme Court,24 since a judge with a longer term in office would be counted as having a seat on the courts of more chief justices, and accordingly his state would have had a wider share on the court. For this reason, though Punjab and Haryana (P&H) and Assam both had five appointments to the court between 1985 and 2010, P&H’s share on the court is larger. Consequently, column 2 maps out the

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share of seats belonging to each state on the court using the chief justices as reference points. In this analysis, it will be seen that Punjab’s share on the Supreme Court was higher than Assam’s.25

Historically, the Bombay High Court has had the largest share on the Supreme Court with over 9% on the court. Allahabad has followed at a close second with 8.6%, then Karnataka with 8.4%, and the states of Madras, Calcutta and Andhra Pradesh have had the next best representation on the court with approximately 7% each. Similarly, Bombay, Allahabad, Calcutta and Madras have had the highest number of fresh appointments (10 each) between 1985 and 2010.26

However, the last 10 years tell a slightly different story. Since 2000, the state of Bihar joins Bombay with a 9.7% share on the court, consequent to the appointment of justice S B Sinha. Karnataka follows closely behind in the last 10 years with 9.3% on the court, since the appointment of justices Santosh Hegde and Shivaraj Patil. Similarly, over the last 10 years, Delhi joins Allahabad with over 8% of the seats on the court, since justice Ahmadi’s tenure when two Delhi seats were added to the court (justices Kirpal and Wadhwa) at a time when Delhi had either one seat or none. Interestingly, the share of seats on the court for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Madras has gone down over the last ten years to a little over 5% and 4% respectively.

This paper encountered methodological difficulties:

(i) Chief justices witnessed several appointments and retirements during their tenure, and it was difficult to determine how the regional composition of the court changed with each successive retirement/appointment. To overcome this difficulty, this paper has mapped the composition of the court only on the basis of the court’s composition on the last day of a chief justice’s term, a day on which he (or any other appointing body) would presumably have carried out all the appointments based on anticipated or actual retirements. For example, although justice K J Reddy (Andhra Pradesh) retired early on in chief justice Ahmadi’s tenure, it would be incorrect to say that Andhra Pradesh’s share of seats went down during justice Ahmadi’s term, since this was

Table 2: Share of Seats on the Supreme Court of India between July 1985 and May 2010

1985-2010 Pre-2000 Post-2000

(1) (%) (2) No (1) (%) (2) No (1) (%) (2 )No
Jammu and Kashmir 2.6 4 2.9 1 2.2 3
Himachal Pradesh 0.2 1 0 0 0.4 0
Punjab and Haryana 6.2 5 6.6 1 5.7 4
Delhi 6.8 8 5.5 4 8.4 4
Rajasthan 3.8 6 5.1 2 2.2 4
Allahabad 8.6 10 9.1 6 8 4
Calcutta 7.6 10 8.4 5 6.6 5
Orissa 4.8 5 3.3 2 6.6 3
Bihar 6.4 6 3.6 2 9.7 4
Assam 2.6 5 1.4 2 4 3
Madhya Pradesh 5.8 8 5.1 4 6.6 4
Gujarat 5.2 8 6.6 4 3.5 4
Bombay 9.4 10 9.1 5 9.7 5
Andhra Pradesh 7.4 6 9.1 4 5.3 2
Karnataka 8.4 8 7.7 4 9.3 4
Madras 7.6 10 9.9 7 4.8 3
Kerala 6.0 8 5.8 4 6.2 4

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followed almost three years later with the appointment of justice Jagannada Rao (Andhra Pradesh).

(ii) Some judges could be said to have belonged to more than one state. For example, justice Chinappa Reddy was an advocate in the Madras High Court but was appointed to the Andhra Pradesh High Court. Here, the judge has been paired in this paper to the court on which he first served as a judge, i e, in justice Chinappa Reddy’s case, to Andhra Pradesh. The same has been done with judges who were transferred to different courts as puisne judges (e g, justice Lodha who was transferred from Rajasthan to Bombay is considered a Rajasthan judge, i e, the court where he first served as a judge).

(iii) A judge who was directly appointed to the Supreme Court without a prior appointment to the high court is attributed to the court of his origin, i e, the high court in which he practised before appointment or before shifting his practice to the Supreme Court. Justices Kuldip Singh and Santosh Hegde present the only such examples between 1985 and 2010.

(iv) This section often ascribes appointments to chief justices. However, there is no evidence to elucidate the nature of the role any chief justice played in appointing judges during his term.

High Court Chief Justice

Table 1 reveals that Supreme Court judges today are appointed increasingly from the pool of high court chief justices. In justice P N Bhagwati’s term, only 46% of the court had served previously as chief justice of a high court. By chief justice Punchi’s term, the figure had gone up to 80%, with only five judges who had not served as high court chief justice (Punchi, Mukherjee, Thomas, Babu, and Quadri). Today, 93% of the court has served as high court chief justice.

Comparing pre-2000 figures with post-2000 figures, the average length of a Supreme Court judge’s previous tenure spent as chief justice of a high court has fallen by three months, from one year and nine months to one year and six months. However, comparing chief justice Bhagwati’s court to chief justice Kapadia’s court, the tenure of the high court chief justice who makes it to the Supreme Court has fallen by 11 months. This indicates that, on average, Supreme Court judges today have spent shorter terms as high court chief justices, perhaps because the age of appointment to the high court has increased.

Justice U C Bannerjee spent the shortest term as chief justice of a high court between 1985 and 2010 – he was appointed to the Andhra Pradesh High Court as chief justice, and then to the Supreme Court only eight days later. Conversely, justice A K Mathur spent the longest term as high court chief justice from amongst those who made it to the Supreme Court with a term of over eight years spent between the Madhya Pradesh and Calcutta High Courts.

Interestingly, the number of judges on the Supreme Court of India who have served as chief justices on multiple high courts has increased. In justice P N Bhagwati’s term, there was none. By justice Lahoti’s term, the figure had gone up to 38% (Balakrishnan, Passayat, Sinha, Srikrishna, Lakshmanan, Mathur, Thakker, Balasubramanyan). Today, a little under a third of the members of the court have served as high court chief justice on more than one court (Katju, Sirpurkar, Ganguli, Dattu, Pattnaik, Radhakrishnan, Gokhale, Dave).

Minority Seats

Since chief justice R S Pathak’s term, there have been between three and four non-Hindu seats on the court. Typically, there have been between one and two Muslim judges on the court. For example, justice V Khalid’s retirement was followed by the appointment of justice Ahmadi; chief justice Venkatramiah’s term saw the addition of a second Muslim judge (justice Fathima

Table 3: The Number of Seats Each State Had on the Supreme Court of India during the Term of Each Chief Justice between July 1985 and May 2010

Bhagwati Pathak Venkatramiah Mukherjee Misra Singh Kania Sharma Venkatchaliah Ahmadi Verma Punchi Anand Bharucha Kirpal Pattnaik Khare Babu Lahoti Sabharwal Balakrishnan Kapadia 74 J&K 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 HP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 P&H 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 Delhi 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Raj 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 All 2 3 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 Cal 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 33 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 Ori 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Bihar Assam MP Guj Bom 0 0 2 2 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 3 2 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 0 3 3 1 2 0 3 3 1 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 january 1, 2011 vol xlvI no 1 AP Karn Mad Ker 1 1 3 0 0 3 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 3 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 Economic & Political Weekly
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Beevi) to the court, a practice which continued almost con-justice P N Bhagwati’s time, and then to the Supreme Courtsistently ever since; justice Faizanuddin’s retirement was fol-older; that some states may have “lost” seats on the court to lowed by the appointment of justice Saghir Ahmed; and chief others; that a Supreme Court judge today is almost always a justice Ahmadi’s retirement was followed by the appointment of former high court chief justice; that out of a total of 127 judges justice Quadri. The court in this period has also seen at some who served on the court between 1985 and 2010, only eight had point in time or another between one and two Zoroastrian studied abroad (Sabyasachi Mukherjee, Amarendra Nath Sen, justices (Kania, Bharucha, Variava, Kapadia), one Christian Kuldip Singh, R M Sahai, A S Anand, Sujata Manohar, Ruma Pal judge (Thomas, Cyriac Joseph), and one Sikh judge (Kuldip and Arun Kumar) whereas “half” of those between 1950 and 1967 Singh, Bedi). had been educated in England.27 But the study also reveals that the more things change, the more they remain the same: that

Conclusions

over two decades, only four out of 127 Supreme Court judges have What does the composition of the Supreme Court between July been women (Beevi, Manohar, Pal, Misra), and none of these has 1985 and May 2010 reveal? For one, it tells us that some things been chief justice; that regional representation is still seen on the have changed: that judges today are appointed to the high courts court and that Supreme Court judges still originally serve on high younger than they were in 1967, though older than they were in courts, and as high court chief justices.

Notes number of appointments made to the Supreme Ranganath Misra was already on the court in
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (1981) Supp SCC 87. AIR 1999 SC 1. Data on Supreme Court judges before this time are scarce. Appointments made during chief justice A S Anand’s tenure will be considered to have been made in the “post-2000” phase. Six judges who served on chief justice Bhagwati’s court (justices Fazl Ali, V D Tulzapurkar, Appajee Vardarajan, A N Sen, R B Misra and D P Madon) are not included in this number since they retired at the end of his tenure, and for reasons that this paper goes on to describe, only the court’s composition at the end of a chief justice’s tenure is used in the analysis. http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/new_s/f_ ji.htm (last visited 7 September 2010). Justices A P Sen, M P Thakkar, G L Oza, B C Ray, T K Thommen, Yogeshwar Dayal, R C Pattnaik, B L Hansaria and M Srinivasan. The resumes of these judges were not available on the Supreme Court website. For example, from the high court website where they served as chief justice, from an annual report published by the Supreme Court of India for the 2007-08, and from speeches made at full court references (if the judge passed away). 18 19 20 21 Court between 1985 and 2010 with a staggering total of 20 judges appointed to the court during that time. (The fact that the strength of the court was increased from 25 justices to 30 must also be considered: Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Act, 2008.) Justice Ganguly was appointed one month before justice Chatterjee retired. However, the outcome was still that the Calcutta High Court had two seats on the Supreme Court, albeit for one month it had three. To get over such transitional difficulties, this paper only looks at composition of the court at the end of a chief justice’s tenure in order to ascertain what changes the chief justice brought about to the composition of his court, anticipating the retirements during and soon after his tenure. In the last 25 years, chief justice Sabyasachi Mukherjee and justices Yogeshwar Dayal, R C Pattnaik and M Srinivasan died while holding office. In the last 25 years, chief justice R S Pathak resigned from office. For example, justice G L Oza served on the courts of chief justices Bhagwati, Pathak and Venkataramiah, but retired in the term of chief justice Venkataramiah – accordingly, he is counted as having had two seats on the court, one each on the courts of justices Bhagwati and Pathak. Consequently, justice Bhagwati’s time. 23 However: (i) This paper does not consider a chief justice of a state to have belonged to that state (unless the chief justice was also a puisne judge originally appointed to that state, e g, justice Sujata Manohar). (ii) It also does not speculate whether judges on the Supreme Court before the three new states were created in 2000 would have otherwise belonged to one of the newer states or regions. 24 In addition to what is set out hereafter, column 1 also does not incorporate the pre-existing judges on the day justice Bhagwati took over as chief justice since they had been appointed previously. 25 On the other hand, column 2 can be affected by chief justices whose terms are shorter. For this reason, column 1 is equally important. 26 However, Calcutta’s share of seats on the court is reflected as lower than Madras’s in Table 2 since its judges had marginally shorter tenures than the Madras judges. 27 Gadbois (1969), supra note 4, 325. References Chandrachud, Abhinav (2010): “Protecting the Lawgivers”, Times of India, 29 September.
9 While it would have been interesting to pursue an Madhya Pradesh is counted as having had one Gadbois, George H (1969): “Indian Supreme Court
investigation into the caste composition of the seat each (attributable to justice G L Oza) on the Judges: A Portrait”, Law and Society Review (3).
court over the last 25 years, the socio-economic identity of the court’s judges is not easy to decipher, and such data are hard to come by. 22 courts of chief justice Bhagwati and Pathak. However, Orissa’s percentage-wise share is greater than the other two states because justice (1970): “Indian Judicial Behaviour”, Economic & Political Weekly, Vol No 5, Annual Number, January.
10 The count starts with those judges who were first

in office at the time justice P N Bhagwati took over as chief justice of India, and concludes with the appointment of justices H L Gokhale, G S Misra and A R Dave.

11 It appears that justice Jagannath Shetty could have been chief justice of India for two days, but for whatever reason this was not what happened.

12 It must be clarified that the chief justices are only reference points in the analysis. For example, the judges who served on chief justice Bhagwati’s court nearing the end of his term (i e, Pathak, Venkataramiah, Mukherji, Misra, Reddy, Sen, Eradi, Thakkar, Khalid, Oza, Ray, Dutt, Singh and Natarajan), were, on average, appointed to the high court at age 44.2, but chief justice Bhagwati would have had nothing to do with this.

13 Article 217, Constitution.

14 Article 124(2), Constitution.

15 Justice R C Pattnaik passed away while in office, and had the shortest tenure of six months in office, but justice Fathima Beevi’s term was the shortest natural term in the last 25 years.

16 Justice K N Saikia was another such judge, while justices N D Ojha, K S Paripoornan and P K Balasubramanyan, were appointed to the Supreme Court one day before they retired from the high court.

17 Justice Balakrishnan’s term witnessed the largest

POLITICS AND IDEAS OF RAMMANOHAR LOHIA

October 2, 2010
On Remembering Lohia – Yogendra Yadav
Lohia’s Socialism: An Underdog’s Perspective – Sachchidanand Sinha
Understanding Capitalism through Lohia – Sunil
Understanding Lohia’s Political Sociology:
Intersectionality of Caste, Class, Gender and Language – Anand Kumar
Context, Discourse and Vision of Lohia’s Socialism – Rajaram Tolpadi
Many Lohias Appropriations of Lohia in Karnataka – Chandan Gowda
Lohia as a Doctoral Student in Berlin – Joachim Oesterheld
What Is Living and What Is Dead in Rammanohar Lohia? – Yogendra Yadav

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Appendix 1: Judges Who Served on the Supreme Court of India between 1985 and 2010 Starting with Justice P N Bhagwati’s Tenure as Chief Justice of India

Judge Date of Birth Date of HC Date of SC Date of High Court of Judge Date of Birth Date of HC Date of SC Date of High Court of Appointment Appointment Retirement Origin Appointment Appointment Retirement Origin

P N Bhagwati 21-Dec-21 21-Jul-60 17-Jul-73 20-Dec-86 Gujarat A P Misra 1-Sep-36 24-May-84 4-Dec-97 31-Aug-01 Allahabad R S Pathak 25-Nov-24 1-Oct-62 20-Feb-78 18-Jun-89 Allahabad Syed Shah Mohd Quadri 5-Apr-38 Jul-86 4-Dec-97 4-Apr-03 AP E S Venkataramiah 18-Dec-24 25-Jun-70 8-Mar-79 17-Dec-89 Karnataka M B Shah 25-Sep-38 28-Jan-83 9-Dec-98 24-Sep-03 Gujarat Sabyasachi Mukherji 1-Jun-27 31-Jul-68 15-Mar-83 25-Sep-90 Calcutta D P Mohapatra 3-Aug-37 18-Nov-83 9-Dec-98 2-Aug-02 Orissa Ranganath Misra 25-Nov-26 4-Jul-69 15-Mar-83 24-Nov-91 Orissa U C Bannerjee 18-Nov-37 9-Jan-84 9-Dec-98 17-Nov-02 Calcutta A P Sen 19-Sept-23 NA 17-Jul-78 19-Sept-88 MP R C Lahoti 1-Nov-40 3-May-88 9-Dec-98 31-Oct-05 MP O Chinappa Reddy 25-Sep-22 21-Aug-67 17-Jul-78 24-Sep-87 Mad+AP R P Sethi 7-Jul-37 30-May-86 8-Jan-99 6-Jul-02 JK V Balakrishna Eradi 19-Jun-22 5-Apr-67 30-Jan-81 18-Jun-87 Madras Santosh Hegde 16-June-40 N/A 8-Jan-99 16-June-05 Karnataka M P Thakkar 4-Nov-23 2-Jul-69 15-Mar-83 3-Nov-88 Gujarat S N Phukan 1-Apr-37 11-Oct-85 28-Jan-99 31-Mar-02 Assam V Khalid 1-Jul-22 7-Mar-74 25-Jun-84 30-Jun-87 Madras Y K Sabharwal 14-Jan-42 17-Nov-86 28-Jan-00 13-Jan-07 Delhi G L Oza 11-Dec-24 NA 20-Oct-85 11-Dec-89 MP Doraiswamy Raju 2-Jul-39 14-Jun-90 28-Jan-00 1-Jul-04 Madras B C Ray 31-Oct-26 NA 29-Oct-85 31-Oct-91 Calcutta Ruma Pal 3-Jun-41 6-Aug-90 28-Jan-00 2-Jun-06 Calcutta

Murli Mohan Dutt 30-Oct-24 18-Sep-69 10-Mar-86 29-Oct-89 Calcutta S N Variava 8-Nov-40 21-Nov-86 15-Mar-00 7-Nov-05 Bombay K N Singh 13-Dec-26 25-Aug-70 10-Mar-86 12-Dec-91 Allahabad Shivaraj Patil 12-Jan-40 29-Mar-90 15-Mar-00 11-Jan-05 Karnataka

Sivasankar Natarajan 29-Oct-24 15-Feb-73 10-Mar-86 28-Oct-89 Madras K G Balakrishnan 12-May-45 26-Sep-85 8-Jun-00 11-May-10 Kerala K Jagannatha Shetty 15-Dec-26 25-Jun-70 1-May-87 14-Dec-91 Karnataka Brijesh Kumar 10-Jun-39 24-May-84 19-Oct-00 9-Jun-04 Allahabad M H Kania 18-Nov-27 4-Nov-69 1-May-87 17-Nov-92 Bombay B N Agarwal 15-Oct-44 17-Nov-86 19-Oct-00 14-Oct-09 Bihar

L M Sharma 12-Feb-28 12-Apr-73 5-Oct-87 11-Feb-93 Bihar Ashok Bhan 2-Oct-43 15-Jun-90 17-Jun-01 1-Oct-08 PH M N Venkatachaliah 25-Oct-29 6-Nov-75 5-Oct-87 24-Oct-94 Karnataka Venkatarama Reddi 10-Aug-40 16-Mar-90 17-Aug-01 9-Aug-05 AP

S Ranganathan 31-Oct-27 14-Nov-77 5-Oct-87 30-Oct-92 Delhi Arijit Pasayat 10-May-44 20-Mar-89 19-Oct-01 9-May-09 Orissa N D Ojha 19-Jan-26 3-Sep-71 18-Jan-88 18-Jan-91 Allahabad B P Singh 9-Jul-42 9-Mar-87 14-Dec-01 8-Jul-07 Bihar S Ratnavel Pandian 13-Feb-29 Feb-74 14-Dec-88 12-Mar-94 Madras D M Dharmadhikari 14-Aug-40 24-Mar-89 15-Mar-02 13-Aug-05 MP T K Thommen 26-Sept-28 9-May-75 14-Dec-88 26-Sept-93 Kerala H K Sema 1-Jun-43 24-May-89 9-Apr-02 30-May-08 Assam A M Ahmadi 25-Mar-32 Sep-76 14-Dec-88 24-Mar-97 Gujarat S B Sinha 8-Aug-44 9-Mar-87 3-Oct-02 7-Aug-09 Bihar K N Saikia 1-Mar-26 12-Feb-79 14-Dec-88 28-Feb-91 Assam Arun Kumar 12-Apr-41 13-Jul-90 3-Oct-02 11-Apr-06 Delhi

Kuldip Singh 1-Jan-32 N/A 14-Dec-88 21-Dec-96 NA B N Srikrishna 21-May-41 30-Jul-90 3-Oct-02 20-May-06 Bombay J S Verma 18-Jan-33 12-Sep-72 3-Jun-89 18-Jan-98 MP

A R Lakshmanan 22-Mar-42 14-Jun-90 20-Dec-02 21-May-07 Madras V Ramaswamy 15-Feb-29 31-Jan-71 6-Oct-89 14-Feb-94 Madras

G P Mathur 19-Jan-43 6-Jul-90 20-Dec-02 18-Jan-08 Allahabad P B Sawant 30-Jun-30 1973 6-Oct-89 29-Jun-95 Bombay

S H Kapadia 29-Sep-47 8-Oct-91 18-Dec-03 28-Sep-12 Bombay N M Kasliwal 4-Apr-28 14-Jun-78 6-Oct-89 3-Apr-93 Rajasthan

A K Mathur 7-Aug-43 13-Jul-85 7-Jun-04 6-Aug-08 Rajasthan M M Punchi 10-Oct-33 24-Oct-79 6-Oct-89 9-Oct-98 PH

C K Thakker 10-Nov-43 21-Jun-90 7-Jun-04 9-Nov-08 Gujarat K Ramaswamy 13-Jul-32 29-Sep-82 6-Oct-89 12-Jul-97 AP

P P Naolekar 29-Jun-43 15-Jun-92 28-Jul-04 28-Jun-08 MP M Fathima Beevi 30-Apr-27 4-Aug-83 6-Oct-89 29-Apr-92 Kerala

Tarun Chatterjee 15-Jan-45 6-Aug-90 27-Aug-04 14-Jan-10 Calcutta

K J Reddy 15-Jul-29 7-Mar-75 11-Jan-90 14-Jul-94 Mad+AP P K Balasubramanyan 28-Aug-42 4-Jun-92 27-Aug-04 27-Aug-07 Kerala

S C Agrawal 5-Sep-33 15-Jun-78 11-Jan-90 4-Sep-98 Rajasthan Altamas Kabir 19-Jul-48 6-Aug-90 9-Sep-05 18-Jul-13 Calcutta

R M Sahai 25-Jun-30 27-Jan-76 11-Jan-90 24-Jun-95 Allahabad R V Raveendran 15-Oct-46 22-Feb-93 9-Sep-05 14-Oct-11 Karnataka

Yogeshwar Dayal 18-Nov-30 28-Feb-74 22-Mar-91 2-Aug-94 Delhi Dalveer Bhandari 1-Oct-47 Mar-91 28-Oct-05 30-Sep-12 Delhi

S Mohan 11-Feb-30 1-Aug-75 7-Oct-91 10-Feb-95 Madras L S Panta 23-Apr-44 20-Aug-91 3-Feb-06 22-Apr-09 HP

B P Jeevan Reddy 14-Mar-32 17-Jun-75 7-Oct-91 13-Mar-97 AP D K Jain 25-Jan-48 19-Mar-91 10-Apr-06 24-Jan-13 PH

G N Ray 1-May-33 23-Dec-76 7-Oct-91 30-Apr-98 Cal Markandey Katju 20-Sep-46 1991 10-Apr-06 19-Sep-11 Allahabad

A S Anand 1-Nov-36 26-May-75 18-Nov-91 31-Oct-01 JK H S Bedi 5-Sep-46 15-Mar-91 12-Jan-07 4-Sep-11 PH

R C Pattnaik Sept 1981 3-Dec-91 30-May-92 Orissa V S Sirpurkar 22-Aug-46 1992 12-Jan-07 21-Aug-11 Bombay

N P Singh 25-Dec-31 12-Apr-73 15-Jun-92 24-Dec-96 Bihar B Sudarshan Reddy 8-Jul-46 2-May-95 12-Jan-07 7-Jul-11 AP

S P Bharucha 6-May-37 19-Sep-77 1-Jul-92 5-May-02 Bombay P Sathasivam 27-Apr-49 8-Jan-96 21-Aug-07 26-Apr-14 Madras

Venkatachala 3-Jul-30 28-Nov-77 1-Jul-92 2-Jul-95 Karnataka G S Singhvi 12-Dec-48 20-Jul-90 12-Nov-07 11-Dec-13 Rajasthan

M K Mukherjee 1-Dec-33 17-Jun-77 14-Dec-93 30-Nov-98 Calcutta Aftab Alam 19-Apr-48 27-Jul 12-Nov-07 18-Apr-13 JK

Faizanuddin 5-Feb-32 27-Nov-78 14-Dec-93 4-Feb-97 MP J M Panchal 6-Oct-46 22-Nov-90 12-Nov-07 5-Oct-11 Gujarat

B L Hansaria 24-Dec-31 NA 14-Dec-93 24-Dec-96 Gauhati Mukundakam Sharma 18-Sep-46 10-Jan-94 9-Apr-08 17-Sep-11 Assam

S C Sen 19-Dec-32 23-Nov-81 11-Jun-94 20-Dec-97 Calcutta Cyriac Joseph 28-Jan-47 6-Jul-94 7-Jul-08 27-Jan-12 Kerala

K S Paripoornan 12-Jun-32 23-Dec-82 11-Jun-94 11-Jun-97 Kerala Asok Kumar Ganguli 3-Feb-47 10-Jan-94 17-Dec-08 2-Feb-12 Calcutta

S B Majumdar 20-Aug-35 3-Oct-78 19-Sep-94 19-Aug-00 Gujarat R M Lodha 28-Sep-49 31-Jan-94 17-Dec-08 27-Sep-14 Rajasthan

Sujata Manohar 28-Aug-34 23-Jan-78 8-Nov-94 27-Aug-99 Bombay H L Dattu 3-Dec-50 18-Dec-95 17-Dec-08 2-Dec-15 Karnataka

GT Nanavati 17-Feb-35 19-Jul-79 6-Mar-95 16-Feb-00 Gujarat Deepak Verma 28-Aug-47 1994 11-May-09 27-Aug-12 MP

Saghir Ahmed 1-Jul-35 2-Nov-81 6-Mar-95 30-Jun-00 Allahabad B S Chauhan 2-Jul-49 5-Apr-95 11-May-09 1-Jul-14 Allahabad

K Venkataswami 19-Sep-34 24-Jul-83 6-Mar-95 18-Sep-99 Madras A K Pattnaik 3-Jun-49 13-Jan-94 17-Nov-09 2-Jun-14 Orissa

B N Kirpal 8-Nov-37 20-Nov-79 11-Sep-95 7-Nov-02 Delhi T S Thakur 4-Jan-52 16-Feb-94 17-Nov-09 3-Jan-17 JK

G B Pattnaik 19-Dec-37 1-Jun-83 11-Sep-95 18-Dec-02 Orissa K S Radhakrishnan 15-May-49 17-May-95 17-Nov-09 14-May-14 Kerala

S P Kurdukar 16-Jan-35 25-Apr-78 29-Mar-96 15-Jan-00 Bombay S S Nijjar 7-Jun-49 8-Apr-96 17-Nov-09 6-Jun-14 PH

K T Thomas 30-Jan-37 12-Aug-85 29-Mar-96 29-Jan-02 Kerala Swatanter Kumar 31-Dec-47 10-Nov-94 18-Dec-09 30-Dec-12 Delhi

Jagannada Rao 2-Dec-35 29-Sep-82 21-Mar-97 1-Dec-00 AP C K Prasad 15-Jul-49 8-Nov-94 8-Feb-10 14-Jul-14 Bihar

V N Khare 2-May-39 25-Jun-83 21-Mar-97 1-May-04 Allahabad H L Gokhale 10-Mar-49 20-Jan-94 30-Apr-10 11-Mar-14 Bombay

D P Wadhwa 5-May-35 23-Feb-84 21-Mar-97 4-May-00 Delhi Gyan Sudha Misra 28-Apr-49 16-Mar-94 30-Apr-10 27-Apr-14 Rajasthan

M Srinivasan 12-Jan-37 1-June-86 25-Sept-97 25-Feb-00 Madras A R Dave 19-Nov-51 18-Sep-95 30-Apr-10 18-Nov-16 Gujarat

Rajendra Babu 1-Jun-39 19-Feb-88 25-Sep-97 30-May-04 Karnataka

NA: Not available.

january 1, 2011 vol xlvI no 1

SPECIAL ARTICLE

Appendix 2: The Courts of India’s 22 Chief Justices between July 1985 and May 2010

Chief Justice Court

P N Bhagwati Fazl Ali*,V D Tulzapurkar*, R S Pathak, E S Venkataramiah, Sabyasachi Mukherji, Ranganath Misra, O Chinappa Reddy, A P Sen, Appajee Vardarajan*, (Jul 1985-Dec 1986) Amarendra Nath Sen*,V Balakrishna Eradi, R B Misra*, D P Madon*, M P Thakkar,V Khalid

Appointments: G L Oza, B C Ray, Murli Manohar Dutt, K N Singh, Sivasankar Natarajan

R S Pathak E S Venkataramiah, Sabyasachi Mukherji, Ranganath Misra, O Chinappa Reddy*, A P Sen*,V Balakrishna Eradi*, M P Thakkar*,V Khalid*, G L Oza,

(Dec 1986-June 1989**) B C Ray, Murli Manohar Dutt, K N Singh, Sivasankar Natarajan Appointments: Jagannatha Shetty, M H Kania, L M Sharma, M N Venkatachaliah, S Ranganathan, N D Ojha, S Ratnavel Pandian,T K Thommen, A M Ahmadi, K N Saikia, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma

E S Venkataramiah Sabyasachi Mukherji, Ranganath Misra, G L Oza*, B C Ray, Murli Manohar Dutt*, K N Singh, Sivasankar Natarajan*, Jagannatha Shetty, M H Kania, (June 1989-Dec 1989) L M Sharma, M N Venkatachaliah, S Ranganathan, N D Ojha, S Ratnavel Pandian,T K Thommen, A M Ahmadi, K N Saikia, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma Appointments:V Ramaswamy, P B Sawant, N M Kasliwal, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, M Fathima Beevi

Sabyasachi Mukherji Ranganath Misra, B C Ray, K N Singh, Jagannatha Shetty, M H Kania, L M Sharma, M N Venkatachaliah, S Ranganathan, N D Ojha, S Ratnavel Pandian, (Dec 1989-Sept 1990***) T K Thommen, A M Ahmadi, K N Saikia, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma,V Ramaswamy, P B Sawant, N M Kasliwal, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, M Fathima Beevi Appointments: K J Reddy, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai

Ranganath Misra B C Ray*, K N Singh, Jagannatha Shetty, M H Kania, L M Sharma, M N Venkatachaliah, S Ranganathan, N D Ojha*, S Ratnavel Pandian,T K Thommen,

(Sept 1990-Nov1991) A M Ahmadi, K N Saikia*, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma,V Ramaswamy, P B Sawant, N M Kasliwal, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, M Fathima Beevi, K J Reddy, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai Appointments:Yogeshwar Dayal, S Mohan, B P Jeevan Reddy, G N Ray, A S Anand

K N Singh (November Jagannatha Shetty, M H Kania, L M Sharma, M N Venkatachaliah, S Ranganathan, S Ratnavel Pandian,T K Thommen, A M Ahmadi, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma,

1991- Dec 1991) V Ramaswamy, P B Sawant, N M Kasliwal, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, M Fathima Beevi, K J Reddy, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai,Yogeshwar Dayal, S Mohan, B P Jeevan Reddy, G N Ray, A S Anand Appointments: R C Pattnaik

M H Kania L M Sharma, M N Venkatachaliah, S Ranganathan*, S Ratnavel Pandian,T K Thommen, A M Ahmadi, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma,V Ramaswamy, P B Sawant,

(Dec 1991-Nov 1992) N M Kasliwal, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, M Fathima Beevi*, K J Reddy, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai,Yogeshwar Dayal, S Mohan, B P Jeevan Reddy, G N Ray, A S Anand, R C Pattnaik*** Appointments: N P Singh, S P Bharucha,Venkatachala

L M Sharma M N Venkatachaliah, S Ratnavel Pandian,T K Thommen, A M Ahmadi, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma,V Ramaswamy, P B Sawant, N M Kasliwal, M M Punchi, (Nov 1992-Feb 1993) K Ramaswamy, K J Reddy, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai,Yogeshwar Dayal, S Mohan, B P Jeevan Reddy, G N Ray, A S Anand, N P Singh, S P Bharucha,Venkatachala

M N Venkatachaliah S Ratnavel Pandian*,T K Thommen*, A M Ahmadi, Kuldip Singh, J S Verma,V Ramaswamy*, P B Sawant, N M Kasliwal*, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, (Feb 1993-Oct 1994) K J Reddy, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai,Yogeshwar Dayal***, S Mohan, B P Jeevan Reddy, G N Ray, A S Anand, N P Singh, S P Bharucha,Venkatachala Appointments: M K Mukherjee, Faizanuddin, B L Hansaria, S C Sen, K S Paripoornan, S B Majumdar

A M Ahmadi (March Kuldip Singh*, J S Verma, P B Sawant*, M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy, K J Reddy*, S C Agarwal, R M Sahai*, S Mohan*, B P Jeevan Reddy*, G N Ray, A S Anand, 1994- March 1997) N P Singh*, S P Bharucha,Venkatachala*, M K Mukherjee, Faizanuddin*, B L Hansaria*, S C Sen, K S Paripoornan, S B Majumdar Appointments: Sujata Manohar, G T Nanavati, Saghir Ahmed, K Venkataswami, B N Kirpal, G B Pattnaik, S P Kurdukar, K T Thomas,Jagannada Rao,V N Khare, D P Wadhwa

J S Verma (March M M Punchi, K Ramaswamy*, S C Agarwal, G N Ray, A S Anand, S P Bharucha, M K Mukherjee, S C Sen*, K S Paripoornan*, S B Majumdar, Sujata Manohar, 1997-Jan 1998) G T Nanavati, Saghir Ahmed, K Venkataswami, B N Kirpal, G B Pattnaik, S P Kurdukar, K T Thomas, Jagannada Rao,V N Khare, D P Wadhwa

Appointments: M Srinivasan, Rajendra Babu, A P Misra, S S M Quadri

M M Punchi S C Agarwal*, G N Ray*, A S Anand, S P Bharucha, M K Mukherjee, S B Majumdar, Sujata Manohar, G T Nanavati, Saghir Ahmed, K Venkataswami, (Jan 1998-Oct 1998) B N Kirpal, G B Pattnaik, S P Kurdukar, K T Thomas, Jagannada Rao,V N Khare, D P Wadhwa

Appointments: M Srinivasan, Rajendra Babu, A P Misra, S S M Quadri

A S Anand S P Bharucha, M K Mukherjee*, S B Majumdar*, Sujata Manohar*, G T Nanavati*, Saghir Ahmed*, K Venkataswami*, B N Kirpal, G B Pattnaik, S P Kurdukar*,

(Oct 1998-Oct 2001) K T Thomas, Jagannada Rao*,V N Khare, D P Wadhwa*, M Srinivasan***, Rajendra Babu, A P Misra*, S S M Quadri Appointments: M B Shah, D P Mohapatra, U C Bannerjee, R C Lahoti, R P Sethi, Santosh Hegde, S N Phukan,Y K Sabharwal, Doraiswamy Raju, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, Shivraj Patil, K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan,Venkatarama Reddi, Arijit Pasayat

S P Bharucha B N Kirpal, G B Pattnaik, K T Thomas *,V N Khare, Rajendra Babu, S S M Quadri, M B Shah, D P Mohapatra, U C Bannerjee, R C Lahoti, R P Sethi,

(Oct 2001-May 2002) Santosh Hegde, S N Phukan*,Y K Sabharwal, Doraiswamy Raju, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, Shivraj Patil, K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan, Venkatarama Reddi, Arijit Pasayat Appointments: B P Singh, D M Dharmadhikari, H K Sema

B N Kirpal G B Pattnaik,V N Khare, Rajendra Babu, S S M Quadri, M B Shah, D P Mohapatra*, U C Bannerjee, R C Lahoti, R P Sethi*, Santosh Hegde,Y K Sabharwal,

(May 2002-Nov 2002) Doraiswamy Raju, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, Shivraj Patil, K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan,Venkatarama Reddi, Arijit Pasayat, B P Singh, D M Dharmadhikari, H K Sema Appointments: S B Sinha, Arun Kumar, B N Srikrishna

G B Pattnaik V N Khare, Rajendra Babu, S S M Quadri, M B Shah, U C Bannerjee*, R C Lahoti, Santosh Hegde,Y K Sabharwal, Doraiswamy Raju, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, (Nov 2002-Dec 2002) Shivraj Patil, K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan,Venkatarama Reddi, Arijit Pasayat, B P Singh, D M Dharmadhikari, H K Sema,

S B Sinha, Arun Kumar, B N Srikrishna

V N Khare Rajendra Babu, S S M Quadri*, M B Shah*, R C Lahoti, Santosh Hegde,Y K Sabharwal, Doraiswamy Raju, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, Shivraj Patil,

(Dec 2002-May 2004) K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan,Venkatarama Reddi, Arijit Pasayat, B P Singh, D M Dharmadhikari, H K Sema, S B Sinha, Arun Kumar, B N Srikrishna Appointments: A R Lakshmanan, G P Mathur, S H Kapadia

Rejendra Babu R C Lahoti, Santosh Hegde,Y K Sabharwal, Doraiswamy Raju, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, Shivraj Patil, K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan, (May 2004-June 2004) Venkatarama Reddi, Arijit Pasayat, B P Singh, D M Dharmadhikari, H K Sema, S B Sinha, Arun Kumar, B N Srikrishna, A R Lakshmanan, G P Mathur, S H Kapadia

R C Lahoti Santosh Hegde*,Y K Sabharwal, Doraiswamy Raju*, Ruma Pal, S N Variava, Shivraj Patil*, K G Balakrishnan, Brijesh Kumar*, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan,

(June 2004-Nov 2005) Venkatarama Reddi*, Arijit Pasayat, B P Singh, D M Dharmadhikari*, H K Sema, S B Sinha, Arun Kumar, B N Srikrishna, A R Lakshmanan, G P Mathur, S H Kapadia Appointments: A K Mathur, C K Thakker, P P Naolekar,Tarun Chatterjee, P K Balasubramanyan

Y K Sabharwal Ruma Pal*, S N Variava*, K G Balakrishnan, B N Agarwal, Ashok Bhan, Arijit Pasayat, B P Singh, H K Sema, S B Sinha, Arun Kumar*, B N Srikrishna (Retd), (Nov 2005-Jan 2007) A R Lakshmanan, G P Mathur, S H Kapadia, A K Mathur, C K Thakker, P P Naolekar,Tarun Chatterjee, P K Balasubramanyan

Appointments: Altamas Kabir, R V Raveendran, Dalveer Bhandari, L S Panta, D K Jain, M Katju, H S Bedi,V S Sirpurkar, B Sudarshan Reddy

K G Balakrishnan B N Agarwal*, Ashok Bhan*, Arijit Pasayat*, B P Singh*, H K Sema*, S B Sinha*, A R Lakshmanan*, G P Mathur*, S H Kapadia, A K Mathur*, C K Thakker*, P P Naolekar*,

(Jan 2007-May 2010) Tarun Chatterjee*, P K Balasubramanyan*, Altamas Kabir, R V Raveendran, Dalveer Bhandari, L S Panta*, D K Jain, M Katju, H S Bedi,V S Sirpurkar, B Sudarshan Reddy Appointments: P Sathasivam, G S Singhvi, Aftab Alam, J M Panchal, Mukundakam Sharma, Cyriac Joseph, A K Ganguli, R M Lodha, H L Dattu, Deepak Verma, B S Chauhan, A K Pattnaik,T S Thakur, K S Radhakrishnan, S S Nijjar, Swatanter Kumar, C K Prasad, H L Gokhale, Gyan Sudha Misra, A R Dave

S H Kapadia Altamas Kabir, R V Raveendran, Dalveer Bhandari, D K Jain, M Katju, H S Bedi,V S Sirpurkar, B Sudarshan Reddy, P Sathasivam, G S Singhvi, Aftab Alam, J M Panchal, (May 2010- Mukundakam Sharma, Cyriac Joseph, A K Ganguli, R M Lodha, H L Dattu, Deepak Verma, B S Chauhan, A K Pattnaik,T S Thakur, K S Radhakrishnan, S S Nijjar, Swatanter Kumar, C K Prasad, H L Gokhale, Gyan Sudha Misra, A R Dave

* Retirement; ** Resignation; ***Death

Economic Political Weekly

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january 1, 2011 vol xlvI no 1

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Windows of Opportunity

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Global Economic Financial Crisis

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1857

A compilation of essays that were first published in the EPW in a special issue in May 2007. Held together with an introduction by Sekhar Bandyopadhyay, the essays – that range in theme and subject from historiography and military engagements, to the dalit viranganas idealised in traditional songs and the “unconventional protagonists” in mutiny novels – converge on one common goal: to enrich the existing national debates on the 1857 Uprising. The volume has 18 essays by well-known historians who include Biswamoy Pati, Dipesh Chakrabarty, Peter Robb and Michael Fisher. The articles are grouped under five sections: ‘Then and Now’, ‘Sepoys and Soldiers’, ‘The Margins’, ‘Fictional Representations’ and ‘The Arts and 1857’.

Pp viii + 364 ISBN 978-0-00106-485-0 2008 Rs 295

Inclusive Growth

K N Raj on Economic Development

Edited by ASHOKA MODY

The essays in the book reflect K N Raj’s abiding interest in economic growth as a fundamental mechanism for lifting the poor and disadvantaged out of poverty. These essays, many of them classics and all published in Economic Weekly and Economic Political Weekly, are drawn together in this volume both for their commentary on the last half century of economic development and for their contemporary relevance for understanding the political economy of development in India and elsewhere.

Pp viii + 338 ISBN 81-250-3045-X 2006 Rs 350

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january 1, 2011 vol xlvI no 1

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