ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Mixed and Mixed Up Economies

the critics after a time lag, got attributed to HYVs. Some examples: spread of tractorisation with its anti-labour consequences, started much before HYVs came, and there is no evidence of its acceleration in the post-HYV period. Same is the case with power tillers. In Indonesia, the substitution of traditional 'bawon' system of rice harvesting (where every one was free to participate and thus got some share of harvest) by 'tehasan' system (where farmer sells his standing crop to a middleman for harvest and the latter not guided by traditional obligations employed a small number of wage labour who often used sickle rather than labour-intensive knife for rice harvesting) became common following major changes in the political environment in the country after the suppression of communists in 1965 is mistakenly attributed to HYVs. Land reforms and liberal facilities to farmers in the post-independence period also generated a vast.class of middle and upper level fanners in most of the countries. This is a stronger force than the traditional handful of very large land-holders to induce process of polarisation. Finally, using a simple neoclassical framework, authors demonstrate that in the context of rising population, return to labour compared to land are bound to decline and inequities are bound to increase. To an extent technology can counterbalance it. Hence, rural inequities have increased not because of the new technology but because of the inadequate extent of new technology.

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