ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Agrarian Crisis and Farm Incomes in India

Farm Income in India: Myths and Realities by A Narayanamoorthy, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2021; pp 384, `1,695.


Prevalence of Undernourishment in Indian States

Prevalence of undernourishment, a measure developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization, is a key indicator for global hunger and food insecurity targets. The FAO has developed a sound conceptual model for estimating the prevalence of dietary energy deficiency. However, the estimation methodology of the prevalence of undernourishment has been a subject of much debate. Important modifications are suggested in the estimation of the distribution of average calorie intake and average minimum dietary energy requirements. Using the latest available data and the revised methodology, it is shown that about 472 million people in India, a staggering 39% of the population, were undernourished in 2011–12.

Nutrition: What Needs To Be Done?

About 805 million people - one in nine people worldwide - remain chronically hungry. Ending hunger and malnutrition requires strong political commitment at the highest level, effective coordination among various ministries and partners, and broad-based social participation. Three policy priorities are crucial to ending malnutrition - expansion of social protection; making smallholder agriculture more nutrition sensitive; and focusing on under-fi ve child and maternal nutrition defi ciencies. An integrated approach is needed to ensure that food consumed is nutritious, wholesome, acceptable, safe and affordable, especially to the poorest and most vulnerable.

Ownership Holdings of Land in Rural India: Putting the Record Straight

In the past, research on land distribution in rural India has pointed out that the surveys by the National Sample Survey Organisation have yielded underestimates of the extent of land inequality and landlessness. In a fresh analysis, this paper, using household level data from the 48th and 59th rounds (1992 and 2003-04) of the NSSO, finds that (within the limitations of the data) more than 40 per cent of households in rural India do not own land, as much as 15 million acres is in ownership holdings of more than 20 acres, and inequality in ownership has worsened between 1992 and 2003-04.

Level of Activity in an Economy with Free Capital Mobility

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the 'opening up' of an underdeveloped economy to free capital flows, instead of boosting its rate of growth as neo-liberals claim, would have the precisely opposite effect of unleashing ceteris paribus a tendency towards stagnation and greater unemployment. The reason for this is simple. The neo-liberal claim is based on the assumption that such 'opening up' would cause a substantial increase in the rate of productive investment in the economy. This claim, even if much direct foreign investment (DFI) were to flow in to the economy, is not necessarily valid, since such DFI inflow may well be of the sort that replaces domestic investment, and hence causes unemployment and a reduction in the level of activity ('de-industrialisation').

Expansion of Irrigation in West Bengal: Mid-1970s to Mid-1990s

This paper, the second in a series of two, attempts to identify the basic structure of irrigation in West Bengal and the extent of growth of irrigation in the post-land reform period. The first paper presented a detailed evaluation of the secondary data available on irrigation in West Bengal. This paper uses these data to identify certain features of irrigation development in the state. After presenting an overview of the pattern of irrigation in the state, the author analyses the growth of irrigation from groundwater and canals and the changes in irrigation from ponds and river lift-irrigation schemes. Finally, inter-district variations in the growth of irrigated area are discussed. [The first article in the series, 'Irrigation Statistics in West Bengal', appeared in the issue of July 7, 2001.]

Irrigation Statistics in West Bengal-1

West Bengal lacks an integrated system of collection of data on irrigation. Collection of data on different types of irrigation systems in the state has been left to different agencies. These agencies are not geared to systematic collection of statistics and the data provided by them are not regular and are often inconsistent. As a result, no reliable statistics exist that could be used to identify patterns of irrigation at the state-level - leave aside doing such exercises at district, block or village levels - with a level of accuracy that is possible for some of the other states. This paper provides an overview of the different sources of data on irrigation in West Bengal and discusses the nature of the data available from each source.

Changing Trajectories Agricultural Growth in West Bengal, 1950 to 1996

in West Bengal, 1950 to 1996 Vikas Rawal Madhura Swaminathan This paper examines the record of agricultural growth in West Bengal over the last 50 years. What is interesting and remarkable about the West Bengal experience is that acceleration in growth occurred during and after major changes in agrarian institutions and land relations. This experience underlines the importance of changes in agrarian structure and agrarian reform for economic growth in a backward agrarian economy.

Investment Gaps in Primary Education-A Statewise Study

Investment Gaps in Primary Education A Statewise Study V K Ramachandran Vikas Rawal Madhura Swaminathan Though systems of non-formal schooling are valuable, universal education and mass literacy cannot be achieved without the establishment of universal formal schooling.

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