ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Water Security and Management

The recent national water policy lacks substance, direction and seriousness in addressing the real issues in India's water problems. The attempt to find quick-fix solutions has perennially hindered long-term planning and process, and setting up of institutional arrangements coupled with legal and legislative support. In this context, it will be helpful for India to study the comprehensive water policy document introduced in South Africa and draw relevant lessons for an integrated approach to water management.

Environment and Accountability

While there are several empirical studies on agriculture-related environmental problems, such as soil degradation and wind and water erosion, only a few studies have dealt with environmental problems in the agricultural sector due to industrial pollution. The difference is that the first set of problems are intra-sectoral while the second is intersectoral. This paper attempts to study the environmental impact of water pollution on rural communities in general and on agricultural production, human health, and livestock in particular. Some important issues in this regard are (a) linkages between industrial development and changes in the micro (local) environment; (b) damage to crops and animal husbandry due to industrial pollution; and (c) impact on health and sanitation in rural communities. These issues are studied in detail with the help of primary data collected from a pollution-affected village in Andhra Pradesh.

An Indispensable Agent for Survival

resource management in Nepal. Chapter An Indispensable Agent 8 discusses the need for protecting the for Survival Water for Food and Rural Development: Approaches and Initiatives in South Asia by Peter P Mollinga (ed); Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2000;

Declining Social Consumption in India

The declining trend in the use and provision of basic amenities needs immediate attention at the policy level. The main reason for this decline is the low efficiency in managing resources like drinking water, where distribution and transmission losses are high. Policy-making should also focus on demand-side aspects like increasing water use efficiency, recycling and promotion of watersaving technologies.

Sustainable Watershed Management

Irrigated agriculture in India has probably reached its limit and further sustainable increases in food production must come from dryland farming, especially watershed development and management. This calls for an analysis of situations under which watershed technology becomes economically viable, socially acceptable and ecologically sustainable. This paper attempts to lay the theoretical ground for a detailed and rigorous empirical work through collective action theories.

Valuation of Renewable Natural Resources

This article brings together the findings of five case studies conducted in diverse natural conditions to assess (a) whether access to markets would result in degradation of natural resources; (b) whether access to natural resources would result in intensive use leading to degradation; (c) whether there is a link between poverty and resource degradation; and (d) whether local institutions and private property rights help common pool resource management.

Assessment of Environmental Policies and Policy Implementation in India

Implementation in India V S Vyas V Ratna Reddy Though the political economy of the developing countries does not allow neglect of the demands of the poor, and though the developed countries are mainly responsible for global environmental problems, the developing world cannot remain oblivious of its own environmental degradation. In spite of promulgating various acts and instituting ministry for environment and forestry, the record of their implementation has been dismal There has been a recent spurt in NGO activities in generating environmental awareness. Yet, systematic introduction of environment issues into educational curricula is awaited.

Environment and Sustainable Agricultural Development-Conflicts and Contradictions

Sustainable agriculture involves not only the identification and application of improved technologies but the incorporation of ecological and socio-economic considerations. Inevitably conflicts and contradictions arise. This article focuses on the inherent conflicts and contradictions which come in the way of operationalising the concept of sustainable development in the context of Indian agriculture.

Urbanisation in India Disturbing Trends

Urban Development and Urban Research in India by Amitabh Kundu; Khama Publishers, New Delhi, 1994; pp 162 + xiii, Rs 160. TRANSFORMATION of the economy from rural to urban is central to the developmental theories of 1950s and 1960s, which are based on the experience of the developed countries. However, due to an altogether different set of structural operands operating in the presently developing countries, the transition is not as smooth as the earlier experience. This is more so in countries with a democratic set up like India. This is mainly due to the imitative strategies followed without giving due consideration to the socioeconomic and political conditions prevailing in these countries. This has resulted in unwieldy growth of urban areas coupled with extremely complex social and environmental consequences associated with it. In this regard, one needs to understand the complexities in the process of urbanisation in terms of spacio-temporal expansion along with the factors responsible tor spacio-temporal variations in urbanisation rather than jumping to instant solutions hke involuntary population displacement and relocation of urban people to reduce urban pressure [Cernea 1994]. This kind of approach, while adding to human rights controversies of project-related displacement of people, may not be sustainable in the long run as we try to cure the disease without understanding the causes.

Urban Water Supply in Rajasthan-Problems and Prospects

Problems and Prospects M S Rathore V Ratna Reddy S Ramanathan The growing problems in providing adequate drinking water to urban populations is a consequence of the lack of long-term planning and inefficient management of urban water usage.

Bias in Social Consumption-Case of Residential Water in Rajasthan

Case of Residential Water in Rajasthan V Ratna Reddy M S Rathore Though drinking water has always been at the top of the priority list of social consumption items, the objective of providing safe drinking water to all sections of the people remains a distant goal The rural- urban disparities in access to drinking water persist and in the urban areas, in the absence of progressive pricing, a very large proportion of subsidised water is used by the higher income groups. A study of the accessibility and distributional aspects of residential water supply in Rajasthan.

Irrigation in Colonial India-A Study of Madras Presidency During 1860-1900

This paper attempts an analysis of irrigation development during the British period between 18604900. The analysis is confined to the southern region particularly the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the paper is to highlight the irrigation policy of the colonial administration which led to skewed development. The forces of colonial exploitation extended to the farmlevel during the second half of the 19th century. As their main objective was to shift as much surplus as possible from the periphery to the centre, the administration had to concentrate on relatively better endowed regions where extortion was easy In the process backward regions were neglected.

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