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Respondents and Quality of Survey Data

This paper attempts to bring out how far the quality of response in the NFHS data varies with the changing educational levels of the respondents for standard demographic variables like age and sex. The analysis of the data shows that information gathered from uneducated respondents is more erroneous than that from educated groups.

Persistent Daughter Disadvantage

This paper examines trends and estimated sex ratio at birth (SRB) for India and child mortality (q5) risk, 1981 and 1991, and discusses how the 2001 Census results are foreshadowed. Earlier state-level (rural vs urban) analyses are extended to present these data at the district level in the form of maps. Multivariate statistical analyses exploring social and economic covariates that affect the likelihood of gender bias in death (female disadvantage in child mortality risk) have been conducted. The female disadvantage is evident in birth and death spread over India in the decade 1981-1991. Though infant and child mortality levels fell for girls and boys, gender differences persisted, and penetrated the hitherto egalitarian south. Masculine SRB that were seen only in urban areas of the north-west in 1981 have spread to urban areas of many northern states in 1991. Multivariate analyses suggest that between 1981- 1991, women's status variables become less associated with reduced gender bias. Modernisation variables suggest less association with gender bias, or that a substitution of pre-natal for post-natal elimination of unwanted daughters may be occurring. These findings are situated in the literature on gender, education, paid work participation, and marriage system changes in India.

Living Arrangements among Indian Elderly

This paper, based on data from National Family Health Survey conducted from April 1992 to September 1993, attempts to assess the pattern of living arrangements among the Indian elderly. Although family care for the elderly is still strong in India, their economic security emerges as a major issue in the absence of co-residence with children.

District Level Estimates of Fertility from India's 2001 Census

Over the last few decades, both fertility and mortality rates have been falling, but the decline of mortality was strong enough to offset the fall in fertility rates. The 2001 Census, however, gives a clear indication that India is passing through the last phase of fertility transition, moving towards moderate to low fertility. Fertility declines have not, however, been uniform across the country and the differential rates are mainly responsible for the differentials in population growth rates across states and union territories.

Social Assistance for Poor Elderly: How Effective?

The National Social Assistance Scheme and its components where they have been effectively introduced has gone a long way towards improving the lot of the poor elderly. However, there are several problems in the implementation of the schemes such as accurate identification of the beneficiaries and therefore a correct assessment of the financial burden on the governments. The scheme needs some urgent revamp.

The Added Years

While ageing of the population represents demographic achievements in lowering birth and death rates, it also poses challenges in care of the elderly. The experience of Kerala is instructive for the rest of India as Kerala is a few years ahead on the demographic path. This article analyses data on ageing, gender differentials in ageing and widowhood.

National Family Health Survey: A Landmark in Indian Surveys

What is the rationale for conducting surveys like the National Family Health Survey when there are already available reliable data sets from the census and the sample registration system which provide wellacknowledged data-base for planning and policy making? In this paper a brief examination of the data from the other surveys and their particular limitations precedes an overview of the NFHS, specifically designed to provide the information that social scientists need, and the nature and quality of the data it has generated.

Estimating Infant Mortality in Kerala

Kerala has recorded declining infant mortality, a high stillbirth rate and a high proportion of infant deaths below one week. This presents a paradox which needs careful investigation.

KERALA-Restructuring Welfare Programmes

Restructuring Welfare Programmes Emerging Trends S Irudaya Rajan U S Mishra While Kerala's achievements in terms of social indices of development has been much discussed, there is now a growing awareness that welfare policies especially with regard to health and family planning need to be redesigned taking account of the emerging demographic pattern in the state.

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