Articles by S Irudaya RajanSubscribe to S Irudaya Rajan

Coming Back to Normal?

An analysis of data from Censuses 2001 and 2011 shows that despite the increase in overall population sex ratio in this period, the 0-6 sex ratio and 0-1 sex ratio have continued to decline. This suggests that there is no let-up in daughter defi cit. However, one positive factor is that the north-western states which have had a long history of high levels of daughter defi cit have shown an increase in the 0-1 sex ratio. The reasons for this need to be determined. Another positive aspect is that daughter defi cit seems to be lower amongst the younger cohort of currently married women; it will be interesting to see whether this persists as the cohort ages.

Fertility at the District Level in India

This paper describes the methodology for estimating recent fertility levels at the district level in India based on the 2011 Census figures. Due to the absence of reliable vital statistics for Indian districts, fertility levels are assessed using a set of indirect methods. Using mortality estimates and the child population aged 0-6 years to estimate the number of births during the seven years preceding the census, figures for crude birth rates and fertility rates are derived for all Indian districts. The results are compared with those derived from the 2001 Census. Our analysis points, in particular, to the significant population overcount in Jammu and Kashmir during the 2011 Census and the continuous but extremely slow process of fertility decline in India.

Third National Family Health Survey in India: Issues, Problems and Prospects

The three rounds of the National Family Health Survey have generated vast amounts of data, which unfortunately have been subject to only limited critical examination by Indian research scholars, though the opposite is the case with scholars outside India. The nfhs-3, which was conducted in 2005-06, covered many more areas than the previous surveys and collected information in new and sensitive areas like sexual behaviour. However, there are questions about the quality of data thrown up by nfhs-3. Information on some indicators such as fertility and infant mortality remains of reasonably good quality, but the data on nutrition, immunisation, and gender violence is suspect. There have been three of these very large surveys since 1992-93, and it is perhaps time to reflect on the experience so far and plan for the next survey a decade after nfhs-3 which would be five years after the 2011 Census.

P R Gopinathan Nair

P R Gopinathan Nair (affectionately called PRG by his friends and colleagues) passed away on August 6, 2008, at the age of 78. A brilliant student, PRG obtained his PhD in economics from the University of Kerala and began his academic career as a researcher in the Department of Economics,...

Female Emigration from India

Almost half of the four million Indian emigrants to the Gulf are from Kerala. Among them, 16 per cent are women, a growing number since they were only 9 per cent a few years ago. This article focuses on the specificities of this female emigration with an analysis of statistical data from a recent survey. It presents the results of an anthropological study of the emigration of nurses from Kerala.

Medical Care for HIV

It is possible to provide antiretroviral therapy for Indiaâ??s growing population of HIV patients. However, there are concerns regarding the viability of such a programme. There is also a concern about the possible effect of ARV therapy on other healthcare programmes. This article argues that if the present healthcare system is strengthened and the primary healthcare centres are involved, ARV can prove to be sustainable.

Women's Reservation Bill

The UPA government has suggested a new bill to increase the number of seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures and reserve 33 per cent of them for women. One point that emerges clearly from the debate is that neither the political parties nor the government are clear on certain important issues, including how many seats will be added and on what basis. Increasing the number of seats in the Lok Sabha by amending the Constitution would go against the spirit of the 91st amendment and the National Population Policy, 2000 that freezes the expansion of seats until 2026.

District Level Fertility Estimates for Hindus and Muslims

This paper provides estimates of crude birth rates and total fertility rates for Hindus and Muslims for 594 districts of India, and assesses the state and district level differentials across the country. It reconfirms that there is a regional variation in fertility in India, with higher fertility in the north than in the southern and western parts, irrespective of religious affiliation. However, unless we understand the regional as well as the undocumented cross-national migration of Muslims, the picture of higher population growth rates among Muslims, reported in the 2001 Census, is likely to persist in the future, in spite of the moderate decline in their fertility.

Indian Workers in UAE

The United Arab Emirates once formed a principal destination for Indian emigrants in search of jobs. But the fear of a rapid demographic imbalance has prompted a policy shift - 'emiritisation' - which has led to a decline in numbers of unskilled and skilled emigrant workers from India. This article examines the state of Indian emigrant labour to the UAE, the structure and conditions of employment.

HIV Patients: Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour Patterns

This study, carried out on HIV-positive persons, in Kerala shows that despite the increase in awareness of HIV transmission among people, there has not been a resultant change in high-risk behaviour. Thus, even though HIV risk information may be necessary, it is not sufficient by itself to motivate behaviour change.

Antenatal Care and AIDS Knowledge among Married Women

This study explores the relationship between antenatal care and AIDS awareness and knowledge of methods of prevention, and shows a strong connection between the two. But AIDS awareness and knowledge among married women is disturbingly low. Outreach and intervention efforts therefore need to focus on promoting comprehensive knowledge about prevention of AIDS, especially through the broadcast media.

Second National Family Health Survey

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) has now come to be regarded as a storehouse of demographic and health data in India. The papers in this issue draw on the data generated in NFHS-2 on a range of social, health and demographic indicators. While the second round has come in for some criticism with regard to the quality of data, and the cost of the survey, it would be useful to undertake a repeat survey between the two censuses.

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