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NORTH-SOUTH DIALOGUE- How West Germany Sees It

rights. It seems that various pressures exerted upon lawyers have inhibited their readiness to take on human rights cases" (pp 26-7). While in Pakistan, the Amnesty International mission found that there were several methods of harassment inflicted upon lawyers who attempted to take on civil rights cases. Among these methods, imprisonment was only the most direct form of intimidation; other tactics were also used. After citing several cases, the Report remarks; "Part of the legal profession, and in particular a number of Bar associations, have commendably upheld their professional obligations by organised legitimate criticism of government measures which they rightly consider infringe civil liberties and the rule of law in Pakistan. It is to be hoped that their efforts will continue in the face of executive measures which have failed to show the necessary respect for the legal profession when protecting civil liberties (p 28)".

WEST GERMANY-Youth in Revolt

 WEST GERMANY Youth in Revolt? Ramesh Jaura A SPECTRE is haunting West Germany: the spectre of a renewed student and youth revolt which might have more threatening dimensions than the similar protest wave which enveloped western Europe in the 1960s, For months, the campus scene in different parts of West Germany has been witnessing sporadic unrest boycotts of classes. Significantly, stit- manifest in protest demonstrations and dents from the science faculties too have been joining these protests and boycotts. Even though the issues prompting such strikes have been everywhere different, there are still three common points to all these agitations: the general fear of having to do without jobs (the unemployment figure has been hovering around the one- million mark); a return to rigid laws which would undo even the little democratisation which followed in the wake of educational reform at the end of the 1960s; and a steady dismantling of democratic freedoms guaranteed under the Constitution, under the pretext of combating enemies of the State.

WEST ASIA-Decline of PLO

Decline of PLO Ramesh Jaura DURING the recent flurry of diplomatic activity in West Asia, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria have urged the US, France and West Germany to bring Israel round to accepting the participation of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (FLO) in the forthcoming Geneva Conference, expected to be held this summer. Until now the Israelis have refused to oblige the Arab states and have made it clear that they would not budge from their stand unless the PLO recognises the right of Israel to exist as a state. There are, however, indications that the Israelis have not yet spoken the last word on the subject. They might be prepared to accept the participation of the PLO as a part of the Arab delegation, including members from several Arab states. In this context, it is pointed out that the outcome of the approaching elections in Israel would play an important role. Equally significant are the attempts by the US and West Germany to persuade Tel Aviv to accept the Arab proposal, on the plea that the time for a workable settlement in West Asia was never so opportune as it is now.

WEST GERMANY-Speeding to 1984

including, its state secretary Homi Daji who contested from Indore, lost their security deposits. The one and only issue during the elections was the Emergency, and its excesses, especially the compulsory sterilisation programme. According to official figures the target of sterilisation operations (267,000) was exceeded by almost three times in only one- third of the period set for it. It is difficult to believe that this would have been achieved only through persuasion and without considerable pressure. An equally sensitive issue was the indiscriminate use of MISA. Madhya Pradesh, generally regarded as a peaceful backward state, had the dubious distinction of having the largest number of political arrests made during the Emergency. At one stage, about 17,000 persons were in jails which could accommodate only about 7,000. The way the administration dragged its feet on the question of release of detenus

EAST GERMANY-Who Is Afraid of Wolf Biermann

January 22, 1977 titles like "Welcome Reunification of the Nation" "A Bright Leaf', "You and Independence Day" (which falls on September 2), "Today" (about their present life), "Youth and Peace", etc. What follows is a rough translation of one of the poems, welcoming the reunification of Vietnam, written by Lam Thi Phan : "Many singing voices are rising to the sky, the Revolutionary Flag is fluttering in the breeze, the entire nation is participating in this merry .song to welcome the greatest festival of our country. Many heroes have endured severe hardships, because they love their nation, and follow the teachings of Uncle Ho and our Workers' party, to sacrifice for the nation".

WEST GERMANY-Generals Affair

WEST GERMANY Generals' Affair Ramesh Jaura HARDLY four weeks after the general elections, West Germany finds itself in the midst of a controversy over the so-called "Generals' Affair" which has caused a fresh divide in the nation, with the CDU and CSU opposition on the side of the suspended generals and the SPD-FDP government trying to project a picture of unity by backing the decision of defence minister George Leber to suspend them from the services.

WEST GERMANY-Polls and Polarisation

WEST GERMANY Polls and Polarisation Ramesh Jaura STRAUSS wins, Kohl loses and Schmidt remains the Chancellor: this is how results of hotly contested October 3 elections to the West German Bundestag (lower house) can he appropriately summed up. The CSU (Christian Social Union) leader Frantz Josef Strauss's victory is attributed to the strengthening of the Bavarian party which fought the polls in alliance with the CDU (Christian Democratic Union) led by Helmut Kohl, the contender for the Chancellor's post. The CDU and CSU were together able to emerge as the strongest among the parties represented in the West German parliament, gaining 244 seats against the 213 won by the Social Democratic Party (SPD). The SPD lost 17 seats from the 230 which it held in the outgoing parliament. But together with the Free Democrats (FDP)

WEST GERMANY- Eastern Policy and Elections

September 4, 1976 WEST GERMANY Eastern Policy and Elections Ramesh Jaura AS in 1971, the Eastern Policy of the socialist-liberal coalition government in West Germany threatens to become a hot electoral issue for the coming general elections on October 3. Even West Berlin which, at least since the signing of the four-power agreement and the transit treaties, had ceased to hit the headlines, shows signs of once again becoming an issue endangering detente in Europe which over a year ago appeared to have been achieved in Helsinki. This is indicated by a series of incidents on the borders between the two German states, climaxed by East Berlin's refusal to allow 14 of the 30 uses carrying West Germans to pass rough the GDR territory to reach West Berlin. Passengers of the 14 buses had been mobilised by the youth-wing of the Christian Democratic Party (CDU) to demonstrate in West Berlin on the fifteenth anniversary of the erection of the Berlin Wall on August 13, 1961. The demonstration addressed by the CDU general secretary, Kurt Biedenkopf, took place at the Reichstag building

SOUTHERN AFRICA-Through German and African Eyes

SOUTHERN AFRICA Through German and African Eyes Ramesh Jaura IN a recent (May 10) TV interview on Bonn's Africa policy, the West German foreign minister Hans Dietrich Genscher, stated that his country, the member-States of the European Community, and the US favoured a "peaceful solution" to the issue of black majority rule in Rhodesia, Namibia and South Africa. They were convinced that the failure to achieve a ''negotiated settlement'' would only strengthen the licals" against the "moderates", in example of this was Rhodesia; and strengthening of the radicals meant a her increase in the Soviet influence in Africa. "We do not want to impose our system of government and way of life on the African states. We do not want to export our systems to Africa. But, at the same time, we shall do everything to prevent attempts from the other side

SOUTHERN AFRICA

wide range and variety of military hardware. For instance, Pretoria does not produce jet fighters, but it manufactures Atlas transport aircraft. The country seems keen to exchange these aircraft for Israeli ICFR jet fighters and also tanks. Under the long standing ,collaboration in nuclear research, South Africa offers Tel Aviv enriched uranium in return for counter insurgency equipment. Eventually South Africa will try to seek Israeli know- how in the manufacture of nuclear bombs. Sufficient documentary evidence is also there to show that Israel is a transit station for South African nuclear scientists going to West Germany for training. Some stolen documents, which ended up in the hands of the African National Congress of South Africa, clearly show that West Germany has been secretly co-operating with Pretoria in developing nuclear rower for both peaceful purposes and for making bombs.

GERMANY-One-Two-None

November 2, 1974 GERMANY One-Two-None FEW regarded the division of Germany as anything but temporary when the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic adopted two separate constitutions in 1949. Both the newly-formed states had set themselves the aim of reunification. FRG committed itself to restoring 'the unity and freedom' of Germany through 'free self-determination' by Germans living in the other half. GDR pledged itself to an undivided democratic Germany. The keynote of both constitutions was that each state regarded itself as the representative of the entire German nation.

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