ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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WEST GERMANY-Assuring the Allies

leader was a mediator. Partha Chat- terjee expanded on this latter point by asking Chakravarty what, in his view, would constitute change. Was not the worker-trade union leader relationship an essentially new one? The trade union leader had, in fact, a bourgeois understanding of his role as a political representative of the people. Dipesh Chakravarty replied that although there were obvious empirical differences between rural zamindar-dominated society and urban industrial society, relationships of power and authority continued to be similar. He accepted that his analysis was pessimistic, but in India there were few grounds for optimism. It was one thing to believe in the possibility of a change for the better, another to argue that it was coming in the near future. He accepted the possibility of change, but: not the immediate likelihood, and this essay was an attempt to understand why this was so. He felt that Marxists who analysed all problems in terms of structure and superstructure tended to be blind to the critical problem of culture, and he argued that there is a great need for a theory of culture in Marxist writing. In conclusion, we may say that the papers presented at this conference showed a greater awareness of the need to analyse the relationship of collaboration between subaltern and elite classes as well as that of conflict. Other elements which came out in the whole discussion were the need to combat narrow economistic explanations for subaltern actions, the need to focus strongly on political relationships, the relative autonomy which exists between the thought and actions of elite and subaltern classes, and the need to understand better the nature of the tenacious hold of culture within the Indian social formation. The study of subaltern consciousness and culture, it was brought out, was central to the whole project. In this, the authors of these papers accepted the need to approach popular beliefs and understandings through a more sophisticated analysis of texts. This is, perhaps, one of the directions in which we may expect the subaltern studies project to move in the future.


January 29, 1983 WEST GERMANY Greens and Missiles Ramesh Jaura WHILE all the four political parties represented in the West German parliament had urged an early poll and all have hailed President Karl Carstens" decision to hold it on March 6, none of them has reason to rejoice. This is not only because the outcome of the parliamentary poll is highly uncertain hut also due to genuine concern about whether or not the electorate would restore political stability that has been the hallmark of West Germany nearly all through its entire 30-odd-year history.

WEST GERMANY-Foreign Policy Perspectives of the Centre-Right Coalition

November 6. 1982 WEST GERMANY Foreign Policy Perspectives of the Centre-Right Coalition Ramesh Jaura SOON after being sworn in on October 1 as Chancellor Helmut Kohl is reported to have sent a confidential message to George Shultz, the US Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs assuring that Bonn would no longer play an intermediary between Moscow and Washington, as social democrat Helmut Schmidt and his advisers had been doing, thus contributing to growing irritations in West: German-American relations. While the report was contradicted in Bonn, its contents have been corroborated by Chancellor Kohl In his policy statement to the federal parliament Bundestag on October 13.

WEST GERMANY-Exit Chancellor Schmidt

Exit Chancellor Schmidt Ramesh Jaura WlTH the collapse of the socialist- liberal coalition on September 17, an era has dragged to an end in West Germany. Its foot-prints will not be easily effaced.


minorities to be included at the central level in a common general election. While the Botha's yardstick to entrench minority rule is racial in the main, the PPR's yardstick is class discrimination.

POLAND-Mending Relations

not only the Harijans but also the poor of all castes and communities. Some leaders of the DSS have begun to speak in terms of espousing all anti-exploitation causes. This is truly remarkable. For, Karnataka, in particular the old Mysore state, is well known for inter- caste fights for seeking employment under the state. The struggle for protective discrimination antedates the constitution. Most of the numerically large caste groups have benefited from reservation in one form or another in the last fifty odd years. But not one of them has engaged in this introspective exercise of pointing out that within their own group the benefits have not always reached those who deserved them most The DSS is without question the first attempt to focus attention on where the benefits go. Recently an important Republican Party leader, C M Armugam from Kolar Gold Fields! has been subjected to demonstrations by Dalits because of his quite obvious alienation from his own people.

WEST GERMANY- All Set on Soviet Gas

WEST GERMANY All Set on Soviet Gas Ramesh Jaura WEST Germany plans to go ahead with its part of the European-Soviet gas pipeline deal, despite criticism from the US. This has been underlined by Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in a recent interview with a Dutch daily. The West German leader said that, so far, neither Bonn nor Paris which is also involved had been told for mally by the US government that it was against the business. Schmidt said: "But I must say clearly that this will certainly have no influence on our sticking to this deal just like the French".

WEST GERMANY-More Tightrope Walking

tractual arrangement with a Chinese construction firm. In this case, the foreign company subcontracts part of the construction work to the Chinese enterprise which in turn, is responsible for the supervision and management of its overseas workforce. For instance, China Construction and Engineering Company (CCEC) and its Hong Kong subsidiary Overseas Building Company has a workforce of 80,000 workers. CCEC is involved in industrial and infrastructural construction projects in the Middle East. In 1980. CCEC signed an agreement with the Emirates-Sudan Investment Co (ESIC) which is a 50-50 joint venture between Sudan and the United Arab Emirates (Richard Breeze, "Cracking the Mid- East Market", Far Eastern Economic Review, June 27, 1980).


nut in Maastricht in Holland ended without the ten heads of state and government taking any substantial decisions on crucial issues confronting the Community and threatening to erode its cohesion. However, a series of declarations on Poland, Spain, Afghanistan and West Asia were issued.

WEST GERMANY-Modernising Conventional Forces

Modernising 'Conventional' Forces Ramesh Jaura OVER the past quarter of a century, West Germany has been steadily growing out of its role as a mere frontline .state. As a leading member of the NATO, its military prowess has been continuously on the increase. Its military strategies for the 1980s are however still confined to restructuring and modernisation of 'conventional' forces, since post-war treaties preclude the building- up of independent nuclear defence by FRG.

WEST GERMANY-Trade Policies towards Third World

Small Engineering Workshops of Howrah M P Ghosh BELILIOUS ROAD, with its teeming small and tiny workshops, I had once earned the city of Howrah the name, 'India's Sheffield'. Those small scale industries which had once flourished are now engaged in a life-and-death struggle to merely survive. But even in their present miserable state, some of the older 'mistrys' of Belilious Road retain their unique skills.

WEST GERMANY-Stalemate in East-West Relations

WEST GERMANY Statemate in East-West Relations Ramesh Jaura TIES between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic have always reflected the state of East-West relations in general. It is not surprising, therefore, that mutual suspicions between the superpowers aggravated by the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and persistent uncertainty in Poland, have begun to cast a long dark shadow on the relations between FRG and GDR.


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