ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Rajni KothariSubscribe to Rajni Kothari

Class and Communalism in India

Indian politics today is marked by the convergence of a techno-managerial elite wanting to be integrated into a global framework and a majority chauvinist ideology. The elite has visions of a powerful and hegemonical state, equipped with technological and military muscle. Its one great mission is that of achieving greatness. Anything that comes in the way has to be marginalised and if necessary dispensed with. All diversities

Integration and Exclusion in Indian Politics

Integration and Exclusion in Indian Politics Rajni Kothari The transition from a highly structured and institutionalised, inter-sectoral, inter-group and inter-elite framework of pluralist politics to a diffuse and unstructured and potentially malleable and homogenising mass politics, spurred by the growth of economic discontent and consciousness thereof has opened the floodgates of populism on the one hand and a monolithic elite and reliance on charismatic power on the other The two, it is argued here, are closely related; both are linked to a process of deinstitutionalising and ultimately depoliticising the conduct of public affairs. The new symbols of managing the public realm and the new types of promises and appeals have resulted in a model of nation-building and a rhetoric of national unity and national glory and power that have split the political community and accentuated the processes of polarisation, marginalisation and exclusion of the large mass of the people.

Globalisation and New World Order-What Future for the United Nations

What Future for the United Nations? Rajni Kothari Decline of the United Nations, along with that of the nation-state, is happening at a time when a new phase of world corporate capitalism is being ushered in. Yet, the oppressed peoples of the world need the broad umbrella of the UN which will restore the democratic and liberating role of the nation-state, return to the issue of equity between and within nations, and re-emphasise the North-South dimension of world order WILL the call of the turn of the century and the dawn of a new millennium be responded by humanity retrieving lost ground or even breaking wholly new ground, or will it take us further along a slowly engulfing nemesis pushing us towards a precipice? Not the precipice of a nuclear war but perhaps something more dreadful, namely, the dissolution of the human civihsational enterprise as such: not moving forward to but rather receding into the 21 st century. I have in mind not some doomsday prediction caused by forces beyond our control but a nemesis brought about by our own actions and inactions that are leading to an erosion of institutions that we thoughl we had created to provide 'unity' and 'order'.

NGOs, the State and World Capitalism

NGOs, the State and World Capitalism Rajni Kothari What is new in the current renewed emphasis on the role of the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the development process is the emerging view in global corporate sectors, shared in large measure by Rajiv Gandhi's government, according to which a freshly conceived private sector, including the NGOs, provide the new frontier of a dynamic technological integration of the world economy. This is to be achieved through a wide diffusion of liberalised, privatised efforts that is then drawn towards a single market for which the vast hinterlands are opened up, new (including intermediate) technologies are introduced in them and a high rate of economic surplus is generated for the metropolitan regions and the export market, all this done efficiently, cost-effectively through cheap labour and raw materials, and in the framework of a competitive ethos which the principle of the market provides and which the state cannot.

Masses, Classes and the State

Rajni Kothari This paper explores the relationship between an increasingly defensive status quo desperate to retain its power and the forces of change and transformation that are getting increasingly restive and restless, conscious of the shackles that bind them and the need to move out of them, yet frustrated and disorganised and unable to cope with the growing repression and terror from the status quo.

The Non-Party Political Process

Rajni Kothari The role of the State in social transformation in India has got undermined, 'development has led to a striking dualism of the social order, and 'democracy has become the playground for growing corruption, criminalisation, repression and intimidation for large masses of the people whose very survival is made to depend on their staying out of the political process and whose desperate economic state incapacitates them from entering the regular economic process as well.

Rethinking Centre-State Relations-A Struggle for Power

Rethinking Centre-State Relations A Struggle for Power Rajni Kothari 'CENTRE-STATE Relations is a subject on which so much has been written already, over such a long period, both on more general issues and on specialised aspects. So many seminars, too, have been held in the past. During the last few years, however, the subject had been very nearly shelved. Now there is a sudden revival. The 1083 state elections, the Southern Chief Ministers' meetnig in Bangalore, the Vijayawada 'conclave', the Sarkarb Commission, the attempt by the Congress(I) to stifle regional aspirations by funning communal feelings (Assam, J and K, Punjab), the renewed attack on the opposition parties as being separatist and anti-national, and the attack on the Centre for undermining the federal constitution and draining the states of their legitimate powers and resources

Political Economy of Garibi Hatao

Rajni Kothari This study develops the elements of a model of necessary linkages through which garibi hatao can be implemented. An eleven-point outline seeks to, fill out and elaborate the basic parameters of the various manifestoes and programmes that have been handed out from time to time but whose implications have never been spelt out.

Political Reconstruction of Bangladesh-Reflections on Building a New State in the Seventies

This paper seeks to point out certain general lessons that we have learnt prom the last 25 years of experience in regard to state and nation building in the "Third World".

State Building in the Third World-Alternative Strategies

Alternative Strategies Rajni Kothari The recent struggles for political autonomy in different parts of the Third World constitute a chapter in post-War developments which call for a major revision of the current package of development theory. The short and successful completion of the liberation struggle and the establishment of a democratic government in Bangla Desh in the face of a sinister war machine backed by powerful states is only the last of a series of events.

Challenge of the Hustings-From Electoral Manipulation to Policy Performance

From Electoral Manipulation to Policy Performance Rajni Kothari The Lok Sabha election in March 1971 was unprecedented in two ways. For one thing, for the first time since Independence the very consolidation of the political system was decided by reference to the ballot box. Secondly, such a fundamental political issue was posed and decided by reference to a clear commitment to policy goals; for the first time a party in government went to the people for a 'mandate* based on a socio-economic programme to which it said it was itself committed.

Voting in India-Competitive Politics and Electoral Change

Competitive Politics and Electoral Change IN the papers that follow, members of the staff of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies present an analysis of voting trends and dec toral behaviour in India based on data from the studies conducted by the Centre during the last five years. Our purpose is to describe and analyse both general and specific aspects of electoral development in India, starting with the 2067 general election. Together these papers seek to deli- neate and understand certain basic parameters of voting behaviour and their implications for the evolving party system in India as well as for the processes of citizenship and political participation which inform the party system. A proper grasp of these parameters, we hope, will provide a perspective on the next major electoral event for the country

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