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Raw Jute Marketing Problems and Solutions

of which his eyesight has been permanently impaired." A passage regarding Pakistan bears quotation. "On 18th July 1972, The Times of London reported that the government had confirmed in the National Assembly that instruments of 'torture' were being purchased by the Pakistan Military Attache in the United States. The Minister of Labour said that his government was not the author of the deal, responsibility for which lay with the former regime of Yahya Khan. He added that the Bhutto government learned of the affair only through a press report from Washington and immediately sent out orders to stop it. The 'instruments' were said to include equipment for brainwashing, lie detection and torture of detainees. According to another press report, the Minister disclaimed responsibility, while simultaneously maintaining that 'everyone used these gadgets'. In June 1973, it was reported from Karachi that electric shock machinery existed inside the prisons arid had been seen by detainces, but that there was no evidence of its use." The Report concludes alter making a global survey of the prevalence or the vice: "In. the first place sophisticated methods of torture are being introduced in many countries. Interrogation techniques are being constantly refined. But torture is not being used for the extraction of information alone. It is also used for the control of political dissent. Often, the two main impulses are combined in one appalling practice. There also exists evidence that the practice of torture is becoming internationalised. Experts and their training, as well as torture equipment, are provided by one government for use in another state. Internally, responsibility lor the use of torture is being broadened, involving other authorities than the police or security police.'' It adds that "The responsibility for torture is, however, no longer confined to governments. Allegations of ill- treatment and brutality, amounting to torture, have been made against several opposition movements which use the violence and, from time to time, hold prisoners or hostages. Though this is a comparatively recent development, it is a serious one. There is no redress of any kind for the victim. It contributes to the escalation of violence. In such confrontation between the forces of the government and the forces of the opposition, the individual remains totally unprotected. Torture can occur in any society. Certain indications have emerged from this study as to the si- tnations where torture is likely to occur.

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