ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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High Cost of Medical Care in Kerala-Tentative Hypothesis

High Cost of Medical Care in Kerala Tentative Hypothesis P G K Panikar In spite of a wide network of public sector medical care institutions, where medical serviccs are supposed to be easily accessible and freely available, private expenditure on medical care in Kerala remains very high, THE substantial improvement in the health status of Kerala despite the low level of economic development and income per capita, has attracted attention. It may be noted that as of 1989, the crude death rate in Kerala had come down to 6 as against 10 for India and 13 for low-income economies, excluding India and China. infant mortality rate for the state in 1989 is reported to be 21 compared to 93 for India and other low-income countries The average life expectancy at birth in the state worked out to 70 years, as against the national average of 59 years, and 55 years for the group of low-income economies other than India and China. Thus, in terms of survival norms, the health status of the state is comparable to that in the high- income industrialised countries of western Europe and north America. However, as brought out in an earlier study on the health status of Kerala [PGK Panikar and C R Soman, 1989], and reiterated in a recent study [K P Kannan, K R Thankap- pan, et al] Kerala's health profile presents a strange combination of low mortality and high morbidity. Another dimension of health improvement in the state which has not received due attention is the comparatively high cost of health care borne by the KeratitesWhether it be in terms of the share of the health sector in the state's budget or per capita expenditure, public as well as private, on medical care, the cost of medical care in Kerala seems to be incommensurately high.

Oil From Crisis to Crisis

P G K Panikar Oil as a source of energy has certain unique characteristics which leads to periodic crises in the international oil market. How have different countries responded in the past? What has been the Indian response to the current crisis?

Against the Numbers Game

P G K Panikar THE publication under review is a miscellaneous collection of papers presented at various national and international seminars and conferences, presidential addresses at the annual conferences of IASP, articles published in national dailies, etc, during the last two decades. Produced over such a long period, and addressed to diverse groups, the contents are apt to be a disparate collection. They are spread across 17 chapters and several annexures in two volumes.

Inter-Regional Variation in Calorie Intake

P G K Panikar The National Sample Survey Organisation has recently published estimates of calorie intake for 1971-72 and 1973-74 based on the results of the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth Rounds of the NSS. According to these estimates, the per capita intake of calories in 1971-72 for the country as a whole was considerably lower than the level in 1961-62; though the national average registered some increase by 1973-74, it was still much below the level in 1961-62. The extent of decline in calorie intake has however varied significantly between different regions.

The Medical Crisis A Marxist Diagnosis

The Medical Crisis: A Marxist Diagnosis P G K Panikar The Political Economy of Health by Lesley Doyal with Imogen Pennell; Pluto Press, London, 1979; pp 297,

Resources Not the Constraint on Health Improvement- A Case Study of Kerala

Improvement A Case Study of Kerala P G K Panikar Judged in terms of conventional indices of health, Kerala stands out from the rest of India. What most distinguishes the performance of Kerala compared to that of other states in India is the improvement in the health status of the rural population in general and of children and infants in partiadar.

Employment, Income and Food Intake among Agricultural Labour Households

Authors have drawn different conclusions about trends in real wage rates of agricultural labour in India, depending on the source of data on wage rates of mule agricultural labour, the terminal years used for the comparisons, the index numbers used for deflating money wages, and so on. From such conclusions, some writers have even ventured to draw inferences about changes in the condition of agricul- tural labourers as a whole.


The concept of health planning has become grossly distorted over successive five year plans; the Draft Five Year Plan, 1978-83, is no exception.

Health Care Delivery System in India-Alternative Approaches

pical Pediatrics 15.
Myers, Desaix 1973 "Civil War in Bangladesh; Relief Planning and Administration in an Insurgency Situation". In Lincoln C Chen (ed), "Disaster in Bangladesh", New York, Oxford University Press.

Fall in Mortality Rates in Kerala-An Explanatory Hypothesis

Fall in Mortality Rates in Kerala An Explanatory Hypothesis P G K Panikar The development of public health measures contributed more to the curly fall in mortality rates m Kerala than the extension of the medical care delivery system.

Economics of Nutrition

P G K Panikar In its nutrition policy, the Planning Commission, presumably on the basis of the Indian Council of Medical Research's assessment of nutrition levels and requirements, has abandoned the goal of optimum nutrition to all and chosen a modest objective of catering to the needs of the more vulnerable groups among the population.

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