ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by N S JodhaSubscribe to N S Jodha

Joint Management of Forests: Small Gains

The joint forest management programme in place for the last 10 years was a response to a crisis situation - evident in the rapid deforestation and the state's inability to police the forests on its own. The need now is for a pro-active stance that would lead to a genuine devolution. This calls for an enhanced focus on skill development and capacity building for all the stakeholders involved - forest officials, NGOs and the local community that would facilitate a forward-looking and anticipatory approach, to forest management.

Waste Lands Management in India

Public policies and programmes after independence affecting waste lands have by and large ignored the fact that waste lands are the common property resources of village communities who recognise the economic and ecological contributions of these lands far better than policy-makers. Only in recent years have waste land management programmes accorded higher priority to participatory approaches. This paper discusses the factors affecting participation and suggests possibilities for the horizontal and vertical upscaling of participation in the management of natural resources.

Poverty Debate in India

In an article in 1988, the author argued that number oriented largescale surveys on income failed to give a correct idea about the extent of poverty; they left out qualitative and a part of quantifiable detail. A recent working paper from the Institute of Development Studies comments on these arguments. The author replies.

Poverty and Environmental Resource Degradation-An Alternative Explanation and Possible Solutions

Degradation An Alternative Explanation and Possible Solutions N S Jodha This essay tries to identify some key factors and circumstances responsible for natural resource base protection in the past and their disregard and decline leading to resource degradation in the changed context of today. In view of the recurrent failure and ineffectiveness of interventions directed to stop human-induced degradation of the natural resource base, one may be tempted to look for some lead from the traditional arrangements. The author's plea, however, is not for revival of traditional arrangements as they were. His focus is instead on a search for functional substitutes for the traditional arrangements which can fit in with present day circumstances.

Ride the Crest or Resist the Change-Response to Emerging Trends in Rainfed Farming

Response to Emerging Trends in Rainfed Farming Research in India N S Jodha Indiscriminate resource utilisation has resulted in high risk agro-ecosystems in rainfed agricultural zones. Moreover, the current phase of liberalisation is hound to reduce public sector funding for research in dry regions. In such circumstances, localised development of dryland fanning through farmers' initiatives supported by NGOs and user groups can redress the imbalance.

Common Property Resources and the Environmental Context-Role of Biophysical versus Social Stresses

Common Property Resources and the Environmental Context Role of Biophysical versus Social Stresses N S Jodha This paper deals with common property resources (CPRs) as a part societal responses to high risk-low productivity environment in the dry regions of India and the decline CPRs under changing social and institutional circumstances despite their unchanged bio-physical contexts, leading to degradation of a community asset and erosion of environment-friendly survival options for the people.

Studying Common Property Resources-Biography of a Research Project

Studying Common Property Resources Biography of a Research Project N S Jodha Introduction THIS paper summarises my presentation at a recent meeting on emerging trends in conduct of applied social science research. This relates to the study of rural common property resources (CPRs) in the dry regions of India (1982-1986), which proved to be my most effective research in terms of its operational use by several agencies ranging from the grass roots level NGOs to national and international development agencies. Policy-makers and planners dealing with wasteland development, anti- poverty programmes, environmental problems in fragile resource zones and researchers from the areas as far-ranging as watershed management to resource economics have used the results and data of the study in different measures. At least six of the articles based on the work have been reprinted in the journals and books of readings nationally and internationally. This also prompted the initiation of a number of CPR studies in the country. Finally, the CPR research shifted focus of my professional work from agricultural economics to the larger issues of environmental resources, sustainability, and participatory development strategies. The effectiveness of the CPR study under question is due to the fact that it attempted to record and project some realities, which all of us routinely see and yet do not recognise. It provided data, insights, and analysis that helped to integrate the problems of rural poverty, resource access and environmental instability, which in turn form the mandate of several agencies grappling with the problem of rural development.

Drought Management-Farmers Strategies and Their Policy Implications

Farmers' Strategies and Their Policy Implications N S Jodha Although current drought management practices have made considerable headway, minimising the impact of drought in dryland areas, they have tended to ignore and, therefore, undermine farmers' traditional coping strategies which include components such as people's participation and collective sustenance. This has also resulted in reducing the effectiveness of modern drought management techniques. A better grasp and understanding of the importance of traditional coping strategies adopted by farmers is undoubtedly called for.

Sustainable Agriculture in Fragile Resource Zones-Technological Imperatives

Resource Zones Technological Imperatives Introduction and Setting THIS paper deals with agriculture in the fragile or marginal resource areas such as mountains and rainfed arid/semi-arid tropical plains. In these areas sustainability or rather unsustainability, is not a matter of probability, but an already felt reality. After a brief comment on the key issues involved in the mainstream debate on sustainability, the paper presents a few negative changes (i e, indicators of unsustainability) relating to the resource base and productivity in these regions. The negative changes are a consequence of current patterns of resource use that over-exploit the resources. The important resource characteristics (often ignored while using the resources) and their sustainability implications are also discussed. After commenting on the indigenous measures and conventional development interventions to handle the constraints of fragile resource- agriculture, the paper examines the need for complementing the two. Finally, the major areas requiring research focus and the technology for enhancing the sustainability of fragile resource-agriculture are discussed.

Rural Common Property Resources-Contributions and Crisis

Contributions and Crisis N S Jodha Common Property Resources(CPRs) in developing countries continue to be a significant component of (he land resource base of rural communities. This is more so in the relatively high-risk, low-productivity areas such as the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of India. Historically, (i) the presence of factors less favourable to rapid privatisation of land resources; (ii) community level concerns for collective sustenance and ecological fragility; and (Hi) dependence of private resource based farming on the collective risk sharing arrangements, constituted circumstances favourable to the institution of common property resources in these areas, CPRs in turn contribute to the production and consumption needs of rural communities in several ways. However, notwithstanding their private contributions CPRs are faced with a serious crisis, as reflected by their area shrinkage, productivity decline, and management collapse.

Crop Rotation in Traditional Farming Systems in Selected Areas of India

in Selected Areas of India N S Jodha R P Singh Crop rotation is an important feature of traditional farming systems in the semi-arid tropics. Using farm-level data on plot-specific cropping histories covering a period of 10 years, the paper discusses different dimensions of rotation practices in three agro-climatic regions of SAT India. Despite realising the importance of rotation, the farmer finds it difficult to rotate crops or cropping systems as he wants. Weather, market forces, and other factors tend to interrupt the rotation sequences.

Poverty Debate in India A Minority View

N S Jodha Rural socio-economic change is often inadequately captured by social science research in the field. This happens partly due to perceptions of the researchers and partly due to inadequacies of research tools and approaches. This paper illustrates the situation by presenting evidence on incidence of rural poverty in two villages of Rajasthan as examined through different approaches, during 1963-66 and 1982-84, Households that have become poorer by conventional measurement of income in fact appear better off when seen through different qualitative indicators of their economic well-being. The paper suggests the need for supplementing conventional measurements of income by qualitative indicators of change to arrive at a realistic understanding of rural socio-economic change.


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