ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by N LalithaSubscribe to N Lalitha

The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology

Farmers in developing countries have little voice in infl uencing agricultural research. However, they are not without political infl uence. The tension between these understandings is examined by investigating the importance of farmers in the political economy of genetically modifi ed crop approvals in India. The evidence shows that while farmers may not be important in shaping policy, they have the clout to defeat it. 

Tamil Nadu GovernmentIntervention Intervention and Prices of Medicines

This article examines the approach of the government of Tamil Nadu towards drug procurement and supply, which is undertaken through an autonomous agency. This agency has formulated detailed procedures for the procurement of quality essential drugs that are supplied to the government healthcare providers according to their needs. The analysis shows that such a system has been effective in purchasing select drugs at low prices. The article suggests that such government intervention may be adopted in other states to keep the prices of medicines in check.

Review of the Pharmaceutical Industry of Canada

This paper discusses three important aspects of the Canadian pharmaceutical industry: compulsory licensing (CL), price control on patented drugs and the R&D scenario. Unlike other developed countries, which have adopted the route of providing higher intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection to promote the growth of the domestic pharmaceutical industry, Canada chose to limit IPRs on important pharmaceutical products. Till the early 1990s, Canada stood alone among the developed countries in using CLs for pharmaceutical patents held in Canada, which helped the promotion of the domestic generic industry. Interestingly, though the pharmaceutical industry of both countries has common points of comparison, the most important point of divergence is that while the Indian pharmaceutical industry is backed by a well-established homegrown chemical industry, Canada lacks this advantage.

Intellectual Property Protection for Plant Varieties

This paper looks at the Indian Plant Act and highlights some issues that need attention in the context of plant protection and the introduction of IPR-protected transgenic crops in the country. While the act has made a good beginning by providing a legal framework taking into account the various players, its success will depend on creating and strengthening the institutional infrastructure to register, monitor and regulate plant varieties.

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry in WTO Regime

A SWOT analysis of the Indian pharmaceutical industry (IPI) in the WTO regime reveals that the much acclaimed IPI's expertise in process development skills were made possible by amendments made to the Indian Patents Act 1970. This strength should be utilised to the hilt to benefit from opportunities that arise from vertical disintegration of research, clinical trials and manufacturing by the multinationals. IPI faces threats in the form of competition from other Asian giants, particularly China. This paper argues that the IPI should adopt various strategies like producing off-patented products, new patented products by acquiring compulsory licensing or cross licensing, collaborate with multinationals not only in R and D and manufacturing, but also in marketing new patented products and improving the standards of production to widen the export market.

Drug Policy 2002: Prescription for Symptoms

The new drug policy is a hotchpotch of measures that do not address the many problems typical to the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Its prescriptions - whether with regard to price control, MAPE or FDI regulations - do not take into cognisance the differentiated nature of the sector in India and may well affect the industry negatively in the long run.

Economic Reforms and Productivity Trends in Indian Manufacturing

This paper analyses the trends in growth and efficiency in the utilisation of resources in the Indian manufacturing industry before and after the introduction of economic reforms. It uses a comparative analysis of all-India figures with Gujarat, one of the most industrially developed states of the country. The study shows that both the organised and unorganised sectors in Gujarat seemed to be doing better than the all-India average in terms of growth of value added. Growth in the manufacturing sector in Gujarat was also more efficient than average all-India growth after the reforms were introduced. Gujarat's strategy of physical infrastructure development, leading to industrialisation, has been the main reason for the growth of the state's manufacturing sector.

Public Issues by Private Corporate Sector

N Lalitha This paper presents a detailed account of the status of stock market in India and the policies of the government of India that have had a bearing on the public issues of securities during the 1980s and early 1990s. All public issues by the private corporate sector in 1988 are analysed to identify the relationship between the different sources of funds, industrial categories affirms, firms classified by paid-up capital, size of the issue and the age of the firm. The paper argues that there is a need for financial innovations in terms of new instruments to pronmote the equity cult which will help mobilise funds from rural and semi-urban areas that have not yet been tapped adequately.

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