ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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US-French Relations in the New World Order

AT the end of the 1980s, US policy-makers announced that the collapse of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of its eastern European sphere of influence had ushered in a 'New World Order' or what some Washington ideologues described as a unipolar' world. Today, however, the victors in the cold war are being forced to grapple with the consequences of their success: the resurgence and intensification of inter- capitalist rivalries political, military and economic. Large-scale investments, aid and exports enabled a re-unified Germany to quickly establish itself as the dominant capitalist power in eastern and central Europe. Not least, Bonn took over as Russia's major foreign creditor. Meanwhile, France revived an issue of long-standing political and military friction with the US, pressing ahead with efforts to create a European security system independent, and at the expense, of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) where its influence would predo- minate. The proliferation of regional blocs and agreements (NAFTA, Maastricht, ASEAN, etc) reflected efforts by the leading capitalist countries to consolidate power centres that would enable them to reach out into the larger world economy.

Latin America Poverty of Democracy and Democracy of Poverty

Democracy of Poverty James Petras Morris Morley The divergent outcomes resulting from the crises in eastern Europe and Latin America are not the result of the demise of economic systems or the superiority of one system over the other but have more to do with the willingness and capacity of the US to reshuffle political regimes while retaining strategic ties to the underlying authoritarian states and economic elite structures. At the same time Latin America's coercive structures have also exhibited a capacity to hold on to power during periods of transition thus guaranteeing the continuity of the social system against democratic social movements and mass popular upheavals.

Nuclear War and US-Third World Relations-The Neglected Dimension

The Neglected Dimension James Petras Morris Morley INTRODUCTION THE subjects of nuclear warfare, the nuclear arms buildup, and the possibility of nuclear confrontation have become a major preoccupation of writers on international conflict. Part of the debate has centred on identifying the possible catalysts. Those deemed most likely to precipitate nuclear warfare or those appearing most frequently in the literature are: (1) Accident, error, or equipment malfunction or system failure; (2) The actions of a 'rogue general', or irrational behaviour by those in control of nuclear weapons; (3) Miscalculations. A conventional war could escalate if one government underestimates the other side's willingness to use nuclear weapons and, thus, deploy them. Or one combatant may experience either 'wishful thinking or exaggerated fears', cither of which could 'distort the assessment of risks in a crisis'1 and lead to a nuclear response; (4) The unintended consequences of a continuing military buildup by the superpowers; (5) A 'bolt-from-t he-blue' preemptive first strike by one superpower on the nuclear arsenal of the other to minimize losses from an attack by the other. Discussion of this possible action usually is premised on the belief thai a political conflict can be resolved only by military means and that a surprise nuclear offensive is better than waiting for the inevitable strike by an opponent; (6) Technological developments that have shortened the time nuclear weapons take to reach their targets or the time required to deploy new nuclear weapons; (7) Either deliberate or unintended consequences of actions by third parties that lead to superpower involvement. A third party may puusue an objective involving the use of nuclear weapons; or seek a goal by non- nuclear means that produces a sequence of events leading to nuclear war Involving the superpowers; or simply create an accident; and (8) Nuclear proliferation, especially in the third world, may increase the likelihood of nuclear war involving the two superpowers.

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