ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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European Union and Its Periphery-Inclusion and Exclusion

Inclusion and Exclusion Michael Haynes Following from a discussion of the evidence for developmental convergence within the European Union and between it and its immediate geographical periphery, this paper argues that the ideology of 'Europeanness' which underpins the European project serves in part to justify the European Union as a relatively exclusive 'rich man's club', keeping its distance from its poorer neighbours.

Towards a Deeper and Wider European Union

Michael Haynes Katherine Pinnock The 'deepening' and the 'widening' of the European Union faces difficulties and complications, not the least of which is the democratic deficit which many feel exists with the project, So, is the creation of Europe as a more powerful 'imagined community' a practical possibility ? Firstly, the development of a sense of national identity took a long time to develop and had to be re-enforced by state driven education, imperial conquests and wars. Secondly, the development of a European identity faces a powerful challenge from national identity whereas when national identity began to be developed its main challenge was localism and particularism which often lacked means of legitimation and defence other than an appeal to perceived custom. Thirdly, although the 'national' emerged in the context of the development of a growing capitalist world economy, the internationalising elements were much less powerful than they are today. Just as the global undercuts the 'nation ', so it also undercuts the idea of 'super-nation' and provides basis for other identities and other potential polarisations and possibilities.

Eastern European Transition-Some Practical and Theoretical Problems

The collapse of eastern Europe in 1989 and the USSR in 1991 marked a turning point in world history, or so it was claimed at the time. But today things look much less clear -far from the collapse of the old regimes leading to the unleashing of a new dynamism, the region seems trapped in chaos, depression and gloom. Most analysts have been unwilling to try to conceptualise the overall nature of the transition. This paper attempts to do this by overviewing the economic and political developments in the region during the last five years, an exercise that reveals, among other things, the extent to which much of the old order has been able to shift its power base to find niches in the new regimes.

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