ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Ageing and Women in India

The Indian population has been ageing over the years, the proportion of older people has been growing. But this increase in life expectancy will not be an unqualified success until adequate provision for the care of the elderly is made. At present, the elderly often suffer abuse and, as in any group, women suffer worse than men.

What Does the National Family Health Survey Reveal

Survey Reveal?
Malini Karkal The report of the National Family Health Survey is significant not for the data that it has collected much of it is already available through other reliable surveys, but for the relative emphasis it places on data which directly support the population control programme. Is there a hidden agenda?

Politics of Population at Cairo

winning out, evolutionary psychology has come into vogue (behaviourism is out), along with an interest in intelligence testing. However, this sociobielogical view of humankind fits into current political thought in a roundabout way. While Murray argues that 'biology is destiny' because IQ determines success in life, Wright's version is not that we are destined by our genes to be aggressive, promiscuous, or whatever, but that if we can learn what our 'real' human nature is, we can control it. Our 'natural' impulses (which lead to chaos) need to be curbed in order for society to survive. He says, "We are potentially moral animals... but we are not naturally moral animals. The first step to being moral-is to realise how thoroughly we aren't." Thus we come full circle via genes and abstruse sociobiological arguments to the 'Moral Majority" and the Republican THE International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was held at Cairo, Egypt, in September. This is the third conference in a series of conferences that have been organised by United Nations Fund for Population (UNFPA) and held at an interval of 10 years. First conference was held in 1974 at Bucharest, Romania, and second in 1984, at Mexico City. However these conferences were preceded by two other conferences organised by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) with the assistance of UN. First of the IUSSP conferences was held in 1954 at Rome, Italy and second, at Belgrade in 1964. IUSSP conferences were essentially academic discussions on the subject areas under the theme of population. Interrelationships between socio-economic conditions and population were discussed as a part of academic interests. No discussions took place to manipulate population size. Politicisation of population issues: in the UNFPA-sponsored conferences is indicated by the fact that at Cairo IUSSP, an association of the professionals in the field of population and which participated as an NGO arranged a 'Contract with America'. The vision that these two tracts summon up is frightening - it is easy to imagine how, backed by the authority of science, the state can suppress and terrorise the poor By taking away their children, force them to work in low-wage, dead-end jobs, and deny them any opportunity to advance by labelling them genetically inferior. The hegemony of the few at the top is reinforced by economic and social policies, and the masses in the middle are controlled through laws that enforce conservative 'morality'. Conservatives rail about big government, but it seems that the state is about to become more powerful than ever. This evolving American ideology, its dissemination through pop psychology books and TV talk shows, and its connection with the new political agenda, need to be carefully followed and analysed by concerned thinkers and academics.

Global Solidarity on Women s Health

Women's Health Malini Karkal The Sixth International Women and Health meeting held in Manila in November last evidenced a growth of regional consciousness and also the forging of closer ties among women on health and reproductive issues.

Progress in Provision of Basic Human Needs- in India, 1961-1981

in India, 1961-1981 Malini Karkal S lrudaya Rajan Indian experience shows that the expected trickle down effect of economic development has not taken place. In order to assess the extent and quality of improvement of life that has occurred in different sections of the population, it is necessary to use indicators other than GNP The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) is one such indicator which is oriented to a basic needs approach. This article analyses PQLI data to provide an assessment of physical well-being of people in different states registering urbanrural and male-female differences.

Age at Marriage How Much Change

Age at Marriage: How Much Change?
Malini Karkal S Irudaya Rajan There is no doubt that the age of marriage of girls has been showing an increasing trend over the years. However it continues to be much lower than the legally prescribed age and a large number of girls continue to be married at very young ages.

Differentials in Mortality by Sex

Differentials in Mortality by Sex Malini Karkal The gap between the life expectancies of males and females at birth in India has shown a steady decline since 1961 Along with this has been a change in the sex ratios favouring females. White this is being generally seen as an indication of the improvement of health of women, a careful analysis of the sexwise changes in mortality patterns and of the health status of women and children belies this argument. For, although the life expectancy for females has improved, most of this gain has accrued to the older age groups. Moreover, the continuing high rates of infant mortality, especially in the perinatal period, and the large proportion of low birth weight babies with poor chances of survival is a clear indication of the poor health of women in India.

Maternal and Infant Mortality

Maternal and Infant Mortality Malini Karkal THE death rate in a population is an index of the health of the people that constitute it. However it is known that there are differentials in rates by characteristics of the people, thus influencing death rates based on the composition of the population. Many developing countries have death rates comparable to those of the developed countries even when it is known that the health of the people in these developing countries is poorer. It should be obvious that the explanation lies in the fact that the two populations have a widely differing composition and in spite of poorer health the developing country has a population that is favourable to an overall lower death rate.

How the Other Half Dies in Bombay

exciting meaningful.
Researchers working on appropriate technology in agriculture, animal husbandry soil-conservation, etc, will do well to specify whether they keep in mind a highly unequal society while making their recommendation or whether their devotion is to finding technological answers for an egalitarian society which they hope will come into existence one day. If nothing else, research carried on with this perspective will at least keep in focus the real issues, and emphasise also that technological solutions are no substitutes for political ones.

Population Growth in Greater Bombay-Some Emerging Patterns

Some Emerging Patterns Malini Karkal The population of Greater Bombay has grown from 812,912 at the 1901 Census to 8,227,332 at the 1981 Census. It has been the fastest growing metropolis in the country in the last decade.

Health for All-A Review and Critique of Two Reports

Following the International Conference on Primary Health at Alma-Ata in September 1978 the Government of India appointed a Working Group to prepare a Report on a strategy to provide 'Health for All by 2000 AD\ The Report teas published by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in March 1981 and can be considered the 'official' document on the proposed health programme for the country.

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