ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by K V RamaswamySubscribe to K V Ramaswamy

Regional Dimension of Growth and Employment

Regional inequality has emerged as a key issue in recent discussions of development policy. States within India differ greatly in terms of economic growth and employment potential. This paper examines some aspects of this regional employment growth in India during 1983 to 2004-05. The results confirm widening interstate disparities in income in the first quinquennium of the 21st century, a continuation of the trend of the 1990s. Urban employment occurs strongly in initially urbanised states. All states are found to be diversifying, but at a slower pace in low income states. A geographic concentration of skilled labour is observed in financial and business services.

Competition Policy and Practice in Canada

This article is a study of the salient features of Canadian competition policy so as to provide useful insights for developing countries which have only recently been initiated into the dynamics of competition law and practice. Moreover, with regard to its relatively small market size and in some respects, the federal structure of its constitution, Canada bears some resemblance with India. Competition policy in small market economies is a relevant subject for study simply because most developing countries suffer from the small size of their domestic markets. Small market size and the existence of economies of scale result in a situation where a market for industrial goods can support only a few technically efficient firms. This results in concentrated markets with relatively higher concentration ratios than that is observed in large economies like the US. In small economies the potential scope for anti-competitive practices is likely to be higher.

The Search for Flexibility in Indian Manufacturing

This paper provides estimates of production subcontracting in Indian manufacturing industries as a source of flexibility. Data on 84 three-digit industries within the organised manufacturing sector is used here. An index of subcontracting intensity is introduced and it is shown to have increased in aggregate manufacturing between 1970 and 1992-93. It is shown that subcontracting practices are concentrated in labour-intensive industries and greater in industries producing consumer non-durables. A non-linear relationship between factory size and subcontracting intensity is postulated. Regression estimates supported the hypothesis. Organisational diseconomies associated with large employment size seem to result in greater subcontracting.

Small Capitalists and Entrepreneurs

K V Ramaswamy Small Business Entrepreneurs in Asia and Europe: Towards a Comparative Perspective edited by Mario Ruttan and Carol Upadhya; Sage Publications, New

India s Apparel Sector in the Global Economy-Catching Up or Falling Behind

Given the emphasis on export-oriented development it is especially important to understand the nature of the global production system that shapes the insertion of third world countries like India into the international economy, This paper on the apparel sector focuses on three themes: First, the interlinkages in the organisation of international economic activity and the changing competitive conditions in the global apparel market; second, the associated importance of distribution and marketing links in the apparel production chain; and third, the cotton fabric- based nature of India's apparel exports and its competitive advantage.

Policy for Small Industry

Structure and Promotion of Small-Scale Industries in India: Lessons for Future Development, National Council of Applied Economic Research. New Delhi, and Friedrich- Naumann-Stiftung, New Delhi, December 1993; pp 315.

Small-Scale Manufacturing Industries-Some Aspects of Size, Growth and Structure

Some Aspects of Size, Growth and Structure K V Ramaswamy In this paper the author approximates the small-scale sector in India by the non-factory non-household segment of the manufacturing sector. It is found to be a significant source of manufacturing employment. Particularly, during the period 1981 to 1991, most of the addition to the manufacturing employment has come from non-household non-factory segment. Registered small-scale (SIDO) units are found to be a small but growing segment of manufacturing. It is observed that wages in small-scale units are lower relative to the large-scale sector but labour productivity is not proportionately lower in 1987-88. This suggests that the shift to non-factory employment may be due to labour cost advantages of small-scale production. The production of reserved items is not found to be a dominant activity of SSI units. The estimated output share of reserved items in industries with larger share of the number of reserved items is not found to have increased. This questions the policy of product reservation for the small-scale sector.

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