ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Competition in Indian Manufacturing Industries

This paper devises an improved turnover index and applies it to examine the mobility of firms in the Indian manufacturing sector during the post-reform period. The new index is used to test the stability of size ranks and analyse the changes in the degree of mobility. The paper studies the change in size distributions of industries and their inter- and intra-class mobility, and tests for the relationship between the dynamic index of competition and the direction of mobility of firms among manufacturing industries.

TFPG in Manufacturing: The 80s Revisited

Establishing accelerated productivity growth in the 1980s is contingent on the use of single deflation, a procedure flawed in principle. There is no credible option to double deflation when working with value added as the output measure in physical terms.

Trade Liberalisation and Productivity Growth in Manufacturing

Using panel data comprising firm-level information drawn from groups within manufacturing industry which have experienced the most significant tariff reduction, this study investigates the trend in productivity growth since 1988-89. The sample of 2,300 firms and 11,009 observations, spanning the period 1988-89 to 1997-98 is very likely the largest assembled for the purpose thus far. We find no evidence of acceleration in productivity growth since the onset of reforms in 1991-92. The result is evaluated in relation to the changes till date in the policy regime in the Indian economy.

What Do We Know about Productivity Growth in Indian Industry

If the growth in total factor productivity in the manufacturing sector during the 1980s may be used as the testing ground for our understanding of the phenomenon we must recognise that our knowledge is limited. Two equally mainstream approaches yield divergent results. Thus, there remains an unresolved issue.

User Financing and Collective Action-Relevance for Sustainable Rural Water Supply in India

Financial resource needed for sustainable rural drinking water is estimated from expenditure data for all states in India. The estimates show that user financing becomes essential for sustainability of the system. Since user financing affects weaker sections adversely, a subsidy from consumers above poverty line to those below is incorporated in the tariff design along the Faulhaberian principles. The rate so arrived at, indicates that public subsidy is still needed for some states with high cost of provision due to their hydro-geological and topographical conditions and/or cost inefficiency. Analysis of institutions based on co-operative action among users suggests that they have several advantages over the other polar alternatives, state ownership and privatisation, in providing potable water. Participatory management inherent in such institutions also enables the government to change its role from provider to facilitator.

Liberalisation, Productivity and Competition-The Missing Links

Liberalisation, Productivity and Competition: A Panel Study of Indian Manufacturing by V Srivastava; Oxford University Press, 1996.
PRODUCTIVITY, the main source of modern economic growth, has once again been discussed and debated in India in the context of recent economic reforms. With productivity growth and increasing competitiveness becoming the key issues in the industrial reform process, measurement of total factor productivity (TFP) has become a growing industry by itself. Different data sets and methodologies have been tried out culminating in the debate over the growth of TFP in the 1980s. In this brief review, we highlight some of the contentious issues emerging from the latest addition by Srivastava to this ever growing literature. We divide this review into two sections. A synopsis of the book is presented in section I. In section 2, the major micro-level findings of the study are compared and contrasted with the macro-level data in order to bring out areas for future research.

TFPG in Manufacturing Industry

TFPG in Manufacturing Industry P Balakrishnan K Pushpangadan IN the light of at least one [Sastry 1995] response to our original article that appeared since our last [Balakrishnan and Pushpangadan 1995] note we would first like to offer some observations on the question of the plausibility of our estimates of TFP growth in Indian manufacturing industry in recent years. Next, we reply in detail to the most recent comment of R and B Dholakia [Dholakia and Dholakia 1995] In general, our point that double deflation is superior to single deflation as a procedure to arrive at real value added appears to have been well taken. However, there appears to be an unease among some at finding the consequent estimates indicating a slower growth of value added in the 1980s since this is widely, and correctly, perceived to be a period of expansionary macroeconomic policy. However, we see no problem, whatsoever, in reconciling our results with the recent trajectory of the Indian economy. The 1980s might well have seen a faster growth of production along with a slower growth of value added. In fact, in a period of a secular decline in the price of raw materials, as occurred in the 1980s,1 this is exactly what would be the prediction when using a neo-classical production function.

Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industry

Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industry P Balakrishnan K Pushpangadan IN our article [Balakrishnan and Pushpangadan 1994] we had argued that appropriate measurement of value added at constant prices is a prerequisite for the estimation of productivity. We had then proceeded to provide a demonstration of this principle by providing estimates of total factor productivity growth for Aggregate Manufacturing in the Indian economy. We observed that the measurement of value added has implications for the estimated growth of TFP. We consider it to be a reflection of the fact that our point has been taken seriously that our original paper has been replied to.1 In this brief note we reply toourcritics. Here we report the results of substantial further work on TFP growth in manufacturing industry. These results strengthen the conclusion of our original paper.

Total Factor-Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industry A Fresh Look

Manufacturing Industry: A Fresh Look P Balakrishnan K Pushpangadan Productivity estimates are sensitive to the measure of real value added that is adopted One source of bias in estimation is that due to the assumption often made of constancy of the relative price of material inputs. This paper provides estimates of total factor productivity for Aggregate Manufacturing having adjusted for changes in this relative price. These results indicate that, contrary to what is believed, productivity growth in the 1980s may, actually, have been slower than in-the earlier decade.

Dissecting Agricultural Stagnation in Kerala-An Analysis across Crops, Seasons and Regions

An Analysis across Crops, Seasons and Regions K P Kannan K Pushpangadan The authors' analysis indicates that the yield stagnation in agriculture in Kerala is all-pervasive, including in paddy. The observed increase in yield of paddy is not due to any technical change, but to marginal land going out of cultivation. There is thus technological stagnation throughout Kerala's agriculture since the mid-seventies. Farmers have, moreover, resorted to increased mixed cropping to minimise earnings fluctuation from a given acreage.

Agricultural Stagnation and Irrigation in Kerala

B D DHAWAN (1988) commenting on our paper Agricultural Stagnation in Kerala: An Exploratory Analysis' [Kannan and Pushpangadan 1988] has questioned us on two counts. One relates to our empirical finding of no evidence of any beneficial impact of irrigation on land productivity and the other relates to our adverse remarks on major irrigation projects both on the basis of cost comparisons with minor irrigation projects as well as their non-performance.

Agricultural Stagnation in Kerala-An Exploratory Analysis

An Exploratory Analysis K P Kannan K Pushpangadan This paper attempts to explain the agricultural stagnation that set in Kerala since the mid-seventies. The phenomenon is attributed to ill-conceived development of critical factors such as water management and land development which has been exacerbated by increasing environmental degradation.

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