ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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People s Science Movements

January 13, 1879 People's Science Movements A Vaidyanathan N Krishnaji K P Kannan THERE has been a growing realisation among scientists and social workers that science and scientific research in India, as presently taught and practised, has acquired an elitist character with little or no relevance to or concern for the needs of the people. This has led to the emergence of a number of voluntary organisations ranging from those explicitly oriented towards the 'popularisation of science to those which seek to inculcate among the masses a scientific approach to understanding society and social Lange as a necessary pre-condition for progressive social transformation. These groups, spread all over India, vary in size and scope ranging from small groups working on particular problems in a limited area to a mass movement like the Kerala Sastra Sahitya Pari- shad (KSSP). A significant feature of these new activities is that they have begun to attract highly trained scientists and technologists who have become disenchanted with the relevance of what they have learnt and what they are doing in the 'scientific establishments

KERALA-Science for the People

October 7, 1978 a show of force, the sarpanch-cum- landlord took out another procession with his henchmen armed with lethal weapons.
The committee's account of its visit to Gundanapalli village is significant for the light it throws on the feudal conditions which still prevail in the village in which it was possible for the powerful landlord of the village to intervene in a family dispute between a washerman and his wife and allegedly beat the washerman almost to death. The old mother of the washerman, Konduri Devayya, gave evidence before the committee. She told the committee that Devayya and his wife have been living separately for some years. Once Devayya had gone to Boyinapalli village on work and the landlord, Prabhakar Rao, allegedly sent two clihermen and got Devayya forcibly brought to his bungalow. The landlord became furious with Devayya because he refused to comply with the landlord's order to live with his wife. The landlord allegedly beat Devayya and stamped on him till he bacame unconscious. His hands and legs were tied up and Devayya was thrown first in the Panchayat office and later, for fear that he may die there, near a stream from where he was picked up by an acquaintance. The people of the neighbouring villages were enraged at the brutal behaviour of the landlord and went to Boyinapalli village, questioned the landlord and paraded him in the villages as a gesture of protest. The committee learnt that no case has been registered against the landlord for beating up Devayya, but that, on the contrary. a case had been filed against Devayya's elder brother.

Agricultural Mechanisation in China

Agricultural Mechanisation in China K P Kannan SHIGERU Ishikawa, known to be one of the most perceptive economists on China, of the Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, Japan, gave two seminars at Trivan- drum on the "Necessity and Problems of Agricultural Mechanisation in China and Its Organisational Aspects" during the first week of October last year. Ishikawa pointed out that the Chinese agriculture is currently undergoing a massive process of mechanisation with a view to increasing agricultural productivity to achieve self-sufficiency, especially in foodgrains. The decision to embark on this programme of agricultural mechanisation was formally taken at a national conference held during October 1975 attended by more than 600 delegates. The conference was named the 'National Learn- from-Tachai Agricultural Conference'. It is significant that the name Tachai figured prominently in the conference. Tachai is a production brigade in the mountain area of the north China province of Shansi. Led by its Party branch, the brigade rebuilt a village which was extremely poor and undeveloped before liberation into a prosperous and thriving socialist countryside. This was achieved by, what the Chinese call, "putting proletarian politics in command, educating the peasants in Mao Tse-tung Thought, firmly taking the socialist road and adhering to the principle of self-reliance and hard work". In sum, the progress was not due to increased use of material incentives but mainly motivating people for collective welfare. This explains why Mao Tse-tung gave the famous call in 1964: "In agriculture learn from Tachai''. The conference was a formal endorsement of this call to emulate the example of Tachai for expansion and modernisation of agriculture. The conference set a target of 70 per cent agricultural mechanisation by 1980. The official definition of agricultural mechanisation was that in each agricultural operation at least 20 per cent of human labour should be substituted by agricultural machinery. This is now sought to be increased to 70 per cent.

COIR INDUSTRY- Implications of Technological Change

has been increased from Rs 37,250 crores to Rs 42,300 crores. This will be barely enough to safeguard the programmes in the core sector, consisting of primarily agriculture and energy, which have been accorded the highest priority. Outlay of this order will involve additional resource mobilisation of Rs 1,600 crores. The increase in outlay in the private sector is much larger

KERALA- Science for Social Revolution

horrible work". When looking for a prospective husband for his daughter, a hamal will try to avoid finding one among the hamal community, and prefer to get her married off to an agricultural labourer working in the village.

A Social Cost Approach to Choice of Technology

in Building Construction K P Kannan R J S Spence This paper is an attempt to apply the technique of social cost-benefit analysis to the problem of choice of technology in building construction in Kerala.


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