ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Kerala's Education System: From Inclusion to Exclusion?

The paper examines the recent shifts in Kerala's education system from an inclusive to an exclusive one. The pendulum seems to be swinging from one extreme to the other, from a highly subsidised and a largely state-sponsored and state-supported system to a mostly self-financing system, a euphemism for a student-financed commercial system. This paper examines the economic, social and political forces that led to this shift, almost tectonic in scale. It also examines the long-term consequences of such a shift to Kerala's economy and society.

Kerala s Fiscal Crisis A Diagnosis

K K George Kerala's fiscal crisis and its economic crisis are reinforcing each other Due to paucity of funds, there has been deceleration in the state's plan expenditure in recent years. This along with other exogenous factors have con- tributed to a slow expansion of the state's resource base. As a result, the own resources of the state are inadequate, despite larger resource mobilisation efforts, to meet even its current non-plan commitments. The absence of any surplus on non-plan account has led to the reduction in size of the state's plans, given the present formula for determining state's plan outlays. A major policy change is called for to get Kerala, as well as other backward states, out of this vicious circle of small volume of resources, small plan outlays and small resource base.

Ninth Finance Commission s First Award

The Ninth Finance Commission has made many departures from the past while retaining the basic gap filling approach of its predecessors. This paper attempts to evaluate not only the departures made by the commission but also its basic approach. The paper is divided into two parts. Part I examines issues like vertical imbalance, incentives for resource mobilisation and economy in expenditure and effectiveness in containing deficits. Part II discusses the efficacy of the commission's inter-state allocation in arresting the trend towards widening inter-state disparities.

Eighth Finance Commission s Award-Lessons We Can Now Draw

What it is that a Finance Commission ought to be principally aiming at? If the commission feels obliged to take as given the revenues and non-plan expenditures the centre and the states are 'committed3 to raise or incur, it is only natural that a few states will have non-plan surpluses while a large majority will have deficits. Also, this approach perpetuates a system under which there is inducement to raise a minimum of revenues and enter into a maximum of non-plan expenditure commitments.

Discretionary Budgetary Transfers A Review

Discretionary Budgetary Transfers: A Review K K George This paper concerns itself with non-plan, non-statutory transfers from the Union government to State governments in India. It is sometimes argued that a system in which resources are concentrated with the Centre and where the Central government enjoys the maximum discretion in its allocation, despite its other drawbacks, is better suited for effecting redistribution from the richer to the poorer States, The author's review of discretionary transfers covering nearly three decades tends to disprove this argument MOST discussions on the subject of Centre- State financial transfers are content with the analysis of statutory transfers effected under the aegis of the Finance Commission and the Plan transfers effected by the Planning Commission. (The term Plan transfers is used here in a somewhat narrow sense, of transfers from the Centre to the States to help them finance the State plans). This paper concerns itself with non-plan, nonstatutory transfers, transfers that are largely in the discretion of the Centre. There are at least two major objections to these transfers. Firstly, they are very much like gifts of the Centre and therefore, the considerations which govern their dispensation can be much more political than economic or objective. Both statutory and at least a major part of plan transfers by contrast, are supposed to be governed by clearly stated criteria, whatever they be, as spelt out from time to time, departures from which are not easily defensible. Secondly equity considerations tend more readily to be overlooked or sidestepped with respect to these transfers, so that the distribution of these transfers works often to the disadvantage of the relatively poor States.

Central Inroads into State Subjects-An Analysis of Economic Services

Central Inroads into State Subjects An Analysis of Economic Services K K George I S Gulati One of the important features of a federal constitution is the division of powers and responsibilities between the Centre and the states.

Centre-State Resource Transfers, 1951-84-An Appraisal

Centre-State Resource Transfers, 1951-84 An Appraisal K K George I S Gulati The authors' review of the flow or resources from the Centre to the states brings out that not only has the fiscal dependence of the states on the Centre increased but the nature of this dependence has undergone a change which is not in keeping with the scheme which the constitutional provisions envisage.


The concept of health planning has become grossly distorted over successive five year plans; the Draft Five Year Plan, 1978-83, is no exception.

Inter-State Redistribution through Budgetary Transfers

Inter-State Redistribution through Budgetary Transfers I S Gulati K K George This paper seeks to examine whether budgetary transfers by the Centre to the states have brought about any redistribution in favour of the poorer states. Part I of the paper gives the breakdown of Central budgetary transfers by major types and by Plan periods, covering the period 1950-51 to 1976-77. Part II analyses the distribution of these different types of transfers among the states and among groups of states. The final part of the article deals with changes, over the different Plan periods, in the distribution of the different types of transfers' THERE can be no two opinions that, since Independence, the access of the Central Government to the various sources of finance

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