ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by K Hanumantha RaoSubscribe to K Hanumantha Rao

Vulnerability Levels of Sewerage Workers in Vijayawada Municipal Corporation

The living and working conditions of sewerage workers in the Vijayawada Municipal Corporation were documented through a sample survey of 98 workers. The Other Backward Classes and Other Caste workers outnumbered those from the Scheduled Castes, refuting the caste-based view of this occupation even while reflecting the precarious employment situation of the unskilled in Andhra Pradesh. A sizeable proportion of workers are on contract or on a timescale without any social security benefits. The working conditions, work-induced health disorders, and non-provision of safety equipment at worksites are the main reasons for the vulnerable working conditions. Low levels of education, lack of skills, and limited opportunities in the labour market restrict their mobility vertically and horizontally. About 70% of them reported financial insecurity.

Chronic Poverty and Malnutrition in 1990s

The focus of the paper is on two interrelated but distinct issues of chronic poverty and malnutrition. It analyses the trends in extent, depth and severity of poverty and also malnutrition in rural and urban areas during the last few decades. The incidence of chronic poverty is higher than that of very poor in both rural and urban areas but the former is lower than severe malnutrition. Although the risk of malnutrition decreases with household income (standard of living index), elimination of poverty cannot ensure eradication of malnutrition. The incidence of child malnutrition is particularly high among poor households where mothers have poor nutritional levels, less education and poor access to antenatal care. The lowest incidence of child malnutrition is not in the richest but in the middle income states with progressive social policy. In the 1990s, with faster urban economic growth, urban poverty declined faster, but inter quintile urban inequality and rural-urban inequality worsened. Poverty, chronic poverty and malnutrition, together, got concentrated in a few geographical locations and among specific social groups.
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