ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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OBITUARY-Panchanan Chakrabartty

enraged Ulema has threatened to issue a Fatwa which would declare agitating women us apostates; their marriages then will he automatically dissolved and as no man will marry a 'Kafira', single woman will never find husbands! A junior woman Minister of Zia has put salt in the wound by declaring the women's agitation as 'intolerable'. Yet the tide is changing, imperceptibly perhaps. Three retired judges of the Lahore High Court have taken the orthodox religious elements to task for never having bothered to interpret martial law as repugnant to Islam, or condemn usurpation, of fundamental rights and detention of citizens without trial. This courageous statement will no doubt generate courage in others and enthuse wotnen crusading for their rights. Full of hope, the women asked, "Who can stop us if we, 52 per cent of the total population of Pakistan, get united, disregarding blood-baths and cruel torture and rape committed in 'Islamic' style inside our prisons?'1 Pre- sident Zia-ul-Haq is going to face a real threat this time

Unilinear Evolution or Multisectoral Co-existence

Unilinear Evolution or Multisectoral Co-existence?
A K Bagchi THIS book has been written by a group of Soviet social scientists working under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. They are A L Levkovsky, V G Rastyannikov, T 1 Kukhtina, N G Lozovaya, V I Iskoldsky, N A Arsharuni, G A Kotchukova, L K Orleanskaya, S M Badi, A B Volkov, S A Bessonov, and N A Simonia. Levkovsky has acted as the co-ordina- tor of the group. The book would be primarily of interest to Sovietologists only, if it just embodied the latest official academic opinion stemming from the Soviet Union. But there are two features of the book which would seem to merit the attention of a wider class of social scientists. The first is a statement on p 3 of the book that the authors hold different views on some crucial issues (e g, the multisectoral pattern of society, the peculiarities of social and class structures, outlooks for developing revolutionary democracy), and that the editors did not try to 'level'' these differences. The second is that most of the authors of the book embrace the idea that the "oriental countries" (which in Soviet terminology

Of Its Times

THIS collection of essays, in honour of one of our most eminent living economists, is certainly very impressive both in terms of the number of subjects covered and in terms of the number of eminent economists whom the energetic editor was able to rope in for contributions. The variety of subjects covered and the obvious competence of the contributors preclude a detailed eritique by a single reviewer. I shall therefore reproduce the list of essays in order that a reader may make his own decision as to which ones to sample; Section One (1) J R Hicfci: "Preference and welfare"; (2) J E Meade: "Preference ordering and economic policy"; (3) R M Goodwin': "The use of normalised general coordinates in economic analysis''; (4) Amartya Sen: "On some debates in capital theory"; (5) Ashok S Guha; "A critique of the overtaking criterion"; (6) Joan Robinson; "The abdication of neoclassical economics"; (7) K A Naqvi ; "Some theorems on values and prtees of production"; (8) V V Bhatt: "The sterility of equilibrium economics: An aspect of the sociology of science''; (9) Partha Dasgupta: "On optimum population size"; (10) Amit Bhaduri: 'Towards a theory of precapitalistic exchange"; (11) Ashok Mitra: "Equivalence in exchange: A sceptical note''; (12) Daniel Thorner: "The principal modes of production of Karl Marx: some preliminary notes". Section Two (13) Louis Lefeber: "On the paradigm for economic development''; (14) Ashok Rudra: "Usefulness of plan models: An assessment based on Indian experience"; (15) Nurul Islam: "Development planning and plan implementation : Lessons of experience"; (16) A Vaidyanathan: "On the new economics of poverty"; (17) S R Sen: "Education, research and economic development"; (18) M L Dantwala and Pravin Visaria: "Rural labour force and employment policy''; (19) Swadesh R Bose: "Movement of agricultural wage rates in Bangladesh, 1949-73"; (20) Pradhan H Prasad: "Limits to investment planning"; (21) I S Gulati; "Tax policy for promoting employment: The choice of a tax holiday"; (22) D T Lakdawala: "Fiscal policy in India"; (23) K N Raj:

Some Characteristics of Industrial Growth in India

in India A K Bagchi Despite the growth of large-scale industries in India since the 1850s, the country can hardly be said to have experienced industrialisation in the modern period. An active process of industrialisation must be marked at least by systematic increases in two ratios: the ratio of industrial output to total national income and the ratio of the working force employed in secondary industry to the working force available for employment.

Notes towards a Theory of Underdevelopment-(In Memoriam Michael Kalecki)

(In Memoriam: Michael Kalecki) A K Bagchi Underdevelopment of the countries of the Third World is a direct result of the interaction of ex- panding capitalism with the pre-capitalist societies of the Third World, The interactions began with the European expansion of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and has continued down to the present day. The societies of the dominated countries changed radically in the process but did not become mirror- images of the metropolitan capitalist societies. The precise changes in these societies depended on the pre-existing social structure. But the end result was for all of them the creation of a state of backwardness in relation to the advanced capitalist societies.

Relevance of Soviet Model

with social purpose, competent enough to understand and analyse the implications of their data inputs and decision outputs, investments and. end-products, and the extent to which their decisions relating to interdependent activities are co-ordinated.

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