ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Energy Policies in Brazil

Energy Policies in Brazil Jose Goldemberg The 'modernisation' of Brazil which took place after 1950 has been synonymous with the adoption of a 'petroleum-based economy'. Since Brazil has meagre petroleum resources, the foreign exchange to pay for imported oil became a fundamental problem, and a policy of heavy borrowing abroad was adopted as the solution. As heavy borrowing abroad continued, Brazil's foreign debt climbed to more than 50 billion dollars which, together with the high interest rates for debt servicing, threatened to lead the country to bankruptcy.


Denuclearisation H A Feiveson Jose Goldemberg THE nuclear weapon states had by August 1979 conducted over 1,100 test explosions, India had conducted one. The stockpiles of the nuclear weapon states have been estimated at over 40,000 nuclear warheads. India presumably has none to a couple.1 Neither the US nor the Soviet Union has renounced the first use of nuclear weapons. Quite the contrary.2 And at least once

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