ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles by Indira HirwaySubscribe to Indira Hirway

Providing Employment Guarantee in India

The employment guarantee plan announced in the common minimum programme has been designed to protect the interests of the poor by detailing the rules of the guarantee and imposing penalties for non-complianace. It has also drawn heavily on the Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Act, which has been in operation for 30 years. However, two major drawbacks of the proposed programme are its unrealistic underlying assumptions and short-term vision. The provisions of the employment guarantee programme should be strengthened to achieve the objectives of poverty reduction, construction of productive assets and promoting mainstream employment.

Identification of BPL Households for Poverty Alleviation Programmes

Identification of BPL Households for Poverty Alleviation Programmes INDIRA HIRWAY The latest expert group on identification of households below poverty line submitted its report to the ministry of rural development in August 2002 [GOI 2002]. Following the recommendations of this report, a fresh BPL census is to be initiated in rural India. K Sundaram has commented on the futility of conducting such a survey on the grounds that: (1) the survey methodology suffers from more or less the same weaknesses as the earlier methodology recommended by the 1997 BPL survey, (2) there are serious problems with respect to indicators, scores, aggregation of scores and operationalisation of the scores for identifying the poor, and (3) the ranking of households based on aggregate scores on 13 indicators is virtually useless for implementation monitoring and evaluation of anti-poverty programmes, as this kind of ranking of households is either not needed (for wage employment programmes) or is useless (for self-employment programmes) [Sundaram 2003].

Employment and Unemployment Situation in 1990s

The concepts and methods used by NSSO to net work and workers are not able to capture the work of the poor, particularly of women, satisfactorily. Since that part of the workforce which is not captured by the NSS surveys is not likely to remain stagnant and is subject to increases and declines, depending on the specific situation, it is possible that an increase in this part of the workforce may explain the decline in the worker-population ratio (WPR) in the nineties. The workforce in these 'difficult to measure sectors', such as subsistence work, home-based work or informal work, can be better captured through time use surveys. Using data from the pilot time use survey (1998-99), this paper shows that (a) this survey technique is capable of getting more realistic estimates of workforce and (b) some of the work not captured in the NSS surveys but captured in the time use surveys is likely to explain the changes in the employment situation in the nineties to a considerable extent.

Tough Challenges in Informal Sector

Informal Sector in India: Perspectives and Policies edited by Amitabh Kundu and Alakh N Sharma; Institute for Human Development and Institute of Applied Manpower Research, New Delhi, 2001;

Dynamics of Development in Gujarat

Gujarat has a relatively high per capita income, a diversified economy and workforce and developed financial and capital markets. On the other hand, the state lags behind in terms of the quality of employment and several dimensions of human development. This paper seeks to delineate the profile of Gujarat's development with a view to understanding the mixed results and inferring the likely directions of future development.

Critique of Gender Development Index-Towards an Alternative

Towards an Alternative Indira Hirway Darshini Mahadevia Holding the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) devised by the UNDP to be unsatisfactory, the authors present an alternative conceptual framework for measuring gender development in the south at the individual and societal levels and compute their Gender Development Measure (GDM) for 15 major states in India.

Selective Development and Widening Disparities in Gujarat

in Gujarat Indira Hirway Gujarat is characterised by stark regional disparities in levels of development and poverty. Hi-tech industrialisation in a few well-endowed areas has been coupled with neglect of the relatively backward areas. This selective path of development in the long run will put constraints on the growth rate of the state economy, which in turn will affect the poor adversely since they will not get enough employment. Any number of programmes of poverty eradication cannot compensate for lack of sustainable and healthy development of the economy.

Panchayati Raj at Crossroads

This paper studies the concepts of panchayati raj, examines the inadequacies of these concepts and the potential of panchayati raj in our economic-political system. lt analyses the experiences of panchayati raj in different states and draws lessons from these experiences, ft then critically examines the 64th Constitutional Amendment Bill and makes some inferences about the implications of strengthening panchayati raj in the country.

Reshaping IRDP-Some Issues

Some Issues Indira Hirway The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of parliament has recently made some recommendations about reshaping the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). Section I of this paper outlines the major recommendations of the PAC. Section II discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these recommendations and draws some inferences for reshaping IRDP. Section III examines the implications of some of the suggest'ons for wage employment programmes and for planning of rural development in general.

Housing for the Rural Poor

Indira Hirway Although the first village housing scheme was introduced as early as the Second Five Year Plan, the government has never carried out a comprehensive survey to assess the nature and extent of the housing needs in rural areas, nor has it ever allocated adequate funds for rural housing. The government's approach to rural housing has been based on four considerations: (I) highly subsidised housing should be provided for the poor; (2) the poor should use their own labour to construct their houses; (3) low-cost houses should use local materials and local skills; and (4) the public, the co-operative and the household sectors should be involved in housing activity How effective has this approach been in solving the rural housing problem?

Direct Attacks on Rural Poverty

Direct Attacks on Rural Poverty Indira Hirway Direct Attack on Rural Poverty: Policy, Programmes and Implementation by Prabhu Ghate, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 1984;


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