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Zia, Our Friend

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS GPD IT appeared last year that with the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan the area of crisis in 1980-31 was clearly known. beyond the slightest doubt It is not so clear now. The future of the , Soviet intervention remains unpredictable. Nobody seems to know how stable and secure the Karrnal regime happens to be. One thing is however, clear

Time to be Careful

Time to be Careful GPD THERE is .in ancient story. The great sage of China Mencius went to see the King Xiang of Liang. On coming out from the interview he said to some persons, "When I looked at him from a distance he did not appear like a sovereign; when I drew near to him, I saw nothing venerable about him". Suddenly the Emperor asked a question to Mencius, "How can the empire be settled?". This made the sage speak. The sage did not bother then that the King had not looked quite venerable a little earlier. Some- "^rig similar has happened now bet- .en China and the Soviet Union. The Kings in Moscow, who were not so venerable only a short while ago, seem suddenly serious about how the problems between them and the Chinese could be settled. And the Chinese sages have now changed their attitude. Or so it would seem.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS-No Room for Euphoria

 state of shock and consequently could not remember exact dates. But, according to her, the police had come with Shashodhar Pal, a notorious landowner of the area, to her little wayside cafeteria. They had beaten her and did not spare even her young grandson, broken up her shop and taken away money which had been given to her the day before by her son who works in the Musabohi copper factory and had received his bonus that day. Her things have been attached. The police were looking for Satya Dolui (30) her absconding son-in-law, alleged to be a 'naxalite', The old woman frequently broke down during the interview.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS-Importance of being Non-Aligned

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Importance of being Non-Aligned GPD IN the face of a concerted campaign launched by such diverse forces as the Congress (I), CPI and the former Socialists within the Janata ably aided by one or two former Jana Sanghis, it looked a little uncertain if Atal Bihari Vajpayee could ultimately travel at all to the not so forbidden city of Beijing. And the outbreak of Sino-Vietnamese hostilities during his visit affected its significance in a very substantial way. The process of further normalisation of Sino-Indian relations has received a 'setback'. This 'setback', however, needs further examination.

Anti-Communist Offensive in Europe

Anti-Communist Offensive in Europe GPD TWO Poles, or shall we say ex-Poles, have been in the news recently. The famous Bookfair in Frankfurt awarded its Peace Prize (to match the Nobel Peace Prize perhaps) to Professor Kolakowski. This Oxford Professor of Philosophy was a member of the Polish Communist Party and was expelled from the party sometime in 1956 or 1957. His three-volume work on the origins, development and fall of Marxism is being translated into German. The first volume on the genesis has just been published. On October 10 he delivered his address of acceptance of the Peace Prize in which he had a lot to say on 'totalitarianism' and related matters.

Moderates All

Moderates All GPD JAMES EARL CARTER has nominated Cyrus Vance as his Secretary of State. Vance is an experienced diplomat. His negotiating skills have been commented upon favourably by everybody. His appointment has been gene- rally welcomed. In short, all the usual noises about the new President's choice of his Secretary have been made. When a new US President nominates his Secretary, commentators all over the world discover all manner of virtues in him. So it is with Cyrus Vance.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS- Festival of the Nonaligned

foodgrains for the urban consumer. The Viable fanner' is relied upon to increase production through the use of modern inputs provided at subsidised rates and to respond to incentive prices by offering larger marketed surpluses. This has inevitably resulted in the emergence of new strains and stresses within the fanning community as well as between agriculture on the one hand and industry and the consumers of agricultural produce in general on the other. With the marketed surpluses from agriculture becoming more and more costly and the incremental income of surplus fanners exempt from taxes. the whole basis of saving and capital formation in the economy was bound to undergo significant changes. Hence the new stress on a direct relationship between industry, trade and farming. 'The role of the public sector in indus- Jy and of land reforms in agriculture has to be accordingly trimmed and must come down in the order of priorities in economic policy and management.

After the Moscow Visit

After the Moscow Visit GPD LOOKING at the world from the official New Delhi perspective must at present be a very pleasant exercise. There is the unparalleled domestic peace and stability; no upsetting elements of any kind. Internationally the picture is even more attractive. All the king's men are out on goodwill and normalisation missions. These Brahmins clad in impeccable suits in the by-no-means inconsiderable summer of Delhi take off for different capitals of the world on normalisation missions. They come back equally well clad. are seen wearing the same enigmatic ministry smiles. Everybody else may be a little perplexed as to why these missions did not take off to these capitals earlier. The standard explanation is, of course, available. Earlier the governments concerned did not respond to our persistent desire to normalise relations. Now they have changed their minds. They have at long last seen what a grand opportunity was always at their doorsteps. Earlier they were not prepared for whatever reason to grab it. Now it is theirs. A new age has begun. Indian enterprise in this direction has finally succeeded.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS- Chou s Successor

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Chou's Successor GPD IT is necessary to recognise at the outset that non-confirmation of Teng Hsiao- ping as the Prime Minister is not as surprising as it appears. Hua Kuo- feng's nomination is certainly quite a surprise. A relatively unknown sixth Vice-Premier, in charge of public security and agriculture, Hua Kuo-feng never appeared to be a serious contender for the post of the Prime Minister. The New China News Agency has also made it known that Hua's appointment as the acting Prime Minister was done at Mao's behest. The old man of Hunan has appointed a fellow Hunanese to command the forces in the battle he surely has to fight now. The issue as to who is going to lead China is now open.

Chou En-lai

Chou En-lai GPD CHOU En-lai is dead An era has ended or is about to end. The Chinese revolution is the most gigantic revolution the world has ever seen. Its glory was not over in 1949. It has been a continuing revolution, and Chou En-lai was one of its makers. He saw a vision of China, a vision of a new socialist China. Chou En-lai, contrary to what everybody outside China seems to believe, was not just an administrator or an efficient, practical man. He was the first Chinese, for example, to have- asked the Chinese to give up Han chauvinism. He was also the first Chinese to have told the overseas Chines in Burma in 1955 how impor- tant it was for them to identify themselves with the local population. These ideas were alien to the Chinese. Chou En-lai was the first Chinese to have talked boldly about them. Chou En-lai was also the first Chinese to have introduced ideas of equality in China's foreign relations. The communists introduced these and many other revolutionary ideas in China's relations with the outside world. This was new in the Middle Kingdom. Chou En-lai was the man who brought these changes about. He taught the modern Chinese the new language of the egalitarian international order. He, more than anybody else, taught the Han People that all nations, big and small, arc equal. One has to be familiar with the ethos of the Middle Kingdom to reckon what a revolutionary change this has been, man who changed China's language international politics is dead, Chou En-lai and his foreign policy did not change only China's language. Chou En-lai and Mao changed the international language too, If Asians and Africans can now stand up to the West, it is in no small measure due to the tough determination of Mao's and Chou's China. Both these men, like their counterparts in Asia and Africa, inherited poverty, destitution, dehumanisation and large peasant masses. But they also had an ideology, the party and the army. With these tools the six hundred odd million people called every imperialist bluff. They faced isolation. They faced encirclement. They still do. Twentyfive years later they have finally put Peking on the world map.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS-White Mail s Burden

August 9, 1975 our devices and acts deserve to be liquidated. On the collective plane, this attitude resulted in Vietnam; on the individual plane, it presented the nation with the phenomenon of Richard Mil- hous Nixon. After much bloodshed and turmoil

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS- The Price of Petrodollars

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS The Price of Petrodollars GPD THE Suez has reopened. The more prosperous Arabs now overlook the canal. Oil fetches better prices.. The galaxy of international leaders regard the smiling, satisfied, Arab statesmen more respectfully than ever. Never before had the politicians of both East and West made their Cairo-trips with so much awe and reverence. Suddenly the Egyptians have found themselves in the centre of international politics - to which Kissingers and Gromykos, or Chavans and Aziz Ahmeds, have to make periodical pilgrimages.

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