ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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PAKISTAN-Anatomy of Repression

PAKISTAN Anatomy of Repression A G Noorani "BENEATH a translucent gloss of political stability, Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is wiping out civil liberties and waging a campaign of repression in Pakistan as ruthlessly as Indian Premier Indira Gandhi is destroying democracy next door.'' Thus wrote the correspondent of The Washington Post, Lewis M Simons, from Lahore (The Guardian Weekly, February 15, 1976), a few months after he was thrown out of India. The similarity in the approaches of the two leaders was striking enough for an observer to remark, "They must read each other's mail ... They both use the same tactics: brutality and overkill".

PAKISTAN-Bhutto and Nonalignment

PAKISTAN Bhutto and Nonalignment A G Noorani PRIME MINISTER Zulfikar Ali Bhut- to has written as many as three articles in daily newspapers this year. The first, published on April 20, made a strong plea for forging an "Iranian- Turkish-Fakistani Community" as a political entity. The second, published on September 6, set forth the rationale behind his move for a Third World Summit. The last article on bilateralism as "the guiding principle of Pakistan's foreign policy" prompts one particularly to ask what message is it that the writer is trying to convey and to whom, Published on October 31, its a most unusual document. For, to the article are appended 17 documents supplied by the Cabinet Division and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Information. It is in effect a White Paper of the Pakistan government and should be compulsory reading for every student of Pakistan's foreign policy.

WEST GERMANY- A Coalition of Weakness

WEST GERMANY A Coalition of Weakness A G Noorani IN a year of elections in Europe it is tempting to draw conclusions from the results and detect a "wave'' sweeping all the countries. But as the CDU leader Helmut Kohl has discovered to his chagrin the exercise, though fascinating, is hazardous. His telegram to the Swedish Conservatives leader Gosta Bohman on the morrow of the poll in Sweden read "your election victory is a signal for Europe not to turn over our continent to the socialist international". The West German electorate was not impressed. It returned the governing]: SPD-FDP coalition to power on October 3 though by a reduced majority. The pundits may well debate on what the election results portend for the continent in the light of the elections to the first parliament in Portugal after more than sixty years and the general election in Italy. The consequence of the electoral verdict of October 3 seems far more clear and it was spelt out by Helmut Kohl himself with greater realism than his earlier prediction. It is a "coalition of weakness'' which will govern West Germany, which some will see as a "disturbing" development in a country which more than any other in Western Europe had seemed a model of "stability".

The Sub-Continent Some Pakistani Perspectives

The Sub-Continent: Some Pakistani Perspectives A G Noorani INDIA and Pakistan matter a lot to each other and far more than either would care to admit. The ties of culture and language are far stronger between India and Pakistan than between Pakistan and Bangladesh. In this respect, India occupies a unique position; for its affinities with Bangladesh are in turn stronger than those which the latter has with Pakistan. India and Pakistan have shaped each other's foreign policy in fundamental respects, each affecting the other's relationship with the great powers. Precisely for these reasons the study of Indo-Pak relations imposes severe strains on the objectivity of even the best of academicians in these countries. It will be long before revisionist schools grow in each country challenging the conventional wisdom about the origins of the Indo-Pak cold war. When it docs, one should not be surprised if the revisionists, in their enthusiasm, perpetrate the errors which revisionists are prone to commit. Witness: the revisionist historians of the cold war. True objectivity lies not in avoidance of expression of opinion, but in one's approach to the evidence. It is marked by a genuine, consuming desire to understand why things happened the way they did. Such understanding is impossible without a close study of both points of view. The three books under review will be of enormous help to anyone who wishes to understand the Pakistani perspective on the relations between India and Pakistan.

Preparation for Partition

Preparation for Partition A LULL in the flow of events is non- toriously deceptive and contemporary observers often miss its significance. Much later, in retrospect, does it dawn on the participants themselves, let alone (he observers, that, unknown to them, events were being shaped in a way likely to alter radically the existing scheme of things. One such phase was the period between August 1945 to March 1946, between the collapse of the Simla Conference convened by Wavell and the arrival of the Cabinet -Mission to India. Apparently, nothing happened; yet it was during this period of lull that the way was paved for the partition of India in a manner few realised then or would have known even today but for the publication of the latest volume in the series of documents on the constitutional relations between Britain and India.0 It was during the period covered by this volume that the homework on partition was done. The economic viability and defence potential of Pakistan, the procedure for bringing it into being, should negotiations on all-India federation fail, the problem of partitioning the Punjab and Bengal were all discussed threadbare.

European Movement for Human Rights

 Restrained Syrian hegemony is viewed to be letter than a leftist government in Lebanon. Syria, for its own reasons, does not want to tangle with Israel on this issue, and the Israeli government has tacitly accepted Syrian intervention, and has merely drawn an undefined "red line'' which Syria should not cross.

JUDICIARY-Transfer of High Court Judges

 uni-purpose in smallpox eradication, malaria work, or in basic nursing and midwifery, will have received training which provides them with some clinical skills. The subcentres of the PHCs should be able to offer some curative services, if they are provided with drugs more regularly and at a higher level than PHCs are at present. Otherwise it would seem that the only significant differences in medical care provisions will be provided by students and interns, who will now be able to get in the way, play about, or try out their clinical skills, in a wider range of settings than at present. Already there are signs that many medical colleges will he able to hide behind administrative difficulties if they do not want to implement the new policies, or if hostility from their colleagues is too strong for them.

Nehru Preparing for Power

In order to end this situation of stunting talents and doing damage to young people, the college adopted the training system of 'goings-up, goings- down". 'Going-up' means that the students concentrate on certain activities in the college or at research and teaching centres, 'Going-down' means that the students return to the communes and their subdivisions. The duration and frequency of student field training in their own production brigades and teams vary with their specialities and grades. Experience shows that this method is a revolution in the teaching system. Its salient feature is that whole-hearted reliance on the workers and the poor and lower middle peasants runs through the whole educational process. Students remain commune members and maintain close contact with other peasants at all times. The students come to study, bringing the problems of their own commune and production brigade; and they return promptly to apply in production what they have learned. This promotes the constant improvement of teaching material and methods.

The Press Act

The Press Act A G Noorani THE Prevention of Objectionable Matter Act 1975 may be divided broadly into two parts. It contains, first, a re- enactment of the Press (Objectionable Matter) Act 1951 with its provisions made more severe and a re-enactment of the Punjab Special Powers (Press) Act 1956. Both these measures were strongly criticised when they were enacted and there is nothing in the Backgrounder or the press release issued on October 8, 1975 which convincingly explains why the Ordinance, since re- enacted as Act, was necessary.

Nehru s Pre-Independence Socialism

Nehru's Pre-Independence Socialism A G Noorani Constitutional Relations between Britain and India: The Transfer of Power, Vol V: The Simla Conference

Hyphens that Divide

Hyphens that Divide A G Noorani Development of Inter-State Rivers: Law and Practice in India, by N D Gulhati; Allied Publishers; Rs 50. Indus Waters Treaty: An Experience in International Mediation, by N D Gulhati; Allied Publishers; Rs 96.

Prisoner Can Do Nothing for Himself

react to the presence of imperialism cannot he ignored, Also, the role of interests becomes crucial in this interrelation. But no aspect of 19th-20th century Indian socio-political history can be studied without taking into consideration the emergence of a new category of social cohesion with its own phenomenon of group consciousness, as also its changing relationship with the phenomenon of traditional social cohesion and group consciousness. A very significant aspect of the study of pre-1947 Indian politics

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