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Ethnicity, Class and State in Pakistan

Feroz Ahmed The current ethnic tensions in Pakistan are rooted in a number of developments: the increasing ethnic heterogeneity of the country's provinces, the growing economic and political interdependence, and the ongoing processes of cultural homogenisation as well as the rapid urbanisation, and the sharpening ethnic asymmetries within Pakistan's elite. These very developments, however, offer the opportunity for seeking solutions in a multi-ethnic framework IN the era of globalisation of technology, capital, markets, and communications, a centrifugal phenomenon described by Isaacs more than 20 years ago as 'massive retiibalisation' of the world, is proceeding on an ever wider scale [Isaacs 1975]. Ethnic, religious, andcaste conflicts are tearing apart not only the former Soviet republics and eastern Europe, but many third world countries too. Pakistan, is one such country which is witnessing one of the most serious ethnic conflicts of its history. In 1995 alone, more than 1,700 persons, including more than 200 law enforcement personnel, were killed in its major city, Karachi (Yasser Hossain, 'Whodunnit?' in Newsline, November 1995) A militant ethnic party, the Mohajir Quomi Movement (MQM), is in violent confrontation with the government. Ethnic polarisation in the province of Sindh is almost complete and in Balochistan it has shattered the traditional fraternity between ethnic groups.

Afzal Bangash A Life Dedicated to Militant Struggle

Militant Struggle Feroz Ahmed MOHAMMAD AFZAL BANGASH, president of the Pakistan Mazdoor Kisan Party and prominent politician of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), passed away in Peshawar on October 29. His death signals the end of the old generation of dedicated revolutionaries in Pakistan. Bangash was 62.

Faiz Ahmed Faiz

Few modern poets have achieved as much international acclaim as Faiz Ahmed Faiz. It is not surprising, therefore, that his primary identification has remained that of a poet But most people who have known of Faiz also know that he was so many other things beside: a political protagonist, a journalist, an essayist, a film maker, a guardian of the arts and even a trade unionist. However, if we are asked to choose just one label to describe Faiz, I think it would be appropriate to call him a humanist

Agrarian Change and Class Formation in Sindh

Feroz Ahmed The modernisation of agriculture in Pakistan since the mid-1960s and the changes in relations of production have given rise to a debate on the mode of production. However, unless a theoretical problematique is located within empirical analysis, it would remain irrelevant for economic development and political movement. It is necessary, therefore, to understand the evolution of existing forms of land tenures and property relations which form the substratum for changes in technology and forms of labour to act upon or interact with. The present study of agrarian change and class formation in the Sindh province is part of an attempt to piece together and analyse the empirical facts concerning the transformation of agrarian structures taking place in Pakistan.
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