ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Breaking the Deadlock: Land Reform Revisited

The regions with continuing peasant insurgencies led by various shades of Maoists are those with continuing land reform questions - Andhra Pradesh and Bihar in India, Nepal, the Philippines, for instance. While there may not be an overall coalition in favour of compulsory land redistribution, particularly given the continuing, though diminishing, role of rural landlords as controlling vote banks in an election system, there is nonetheless a substantial opinion that something needs to be done about the inequities of existing landownership in these regions. Is it possible to work out a land reform programme in this political climate? This note looks at some of the issues involved and suggests a possible way to break the deadlock.

Violence and the Palestinian Struggle

Eqbal Ahmed argued that "armed struggle was supremely unsuited to the Palestinian condition" and that "it was a mistake to put so much emphasis on it". He emphasised the principle of morally isolating the enemy and of choosing methods of struggle that would accomplish this aim. The objective was to expose the contradictions between Israel's claim to victimhood and its suppression of the Palestinians. Eqbal Ahmed spoke about his proposal a number of times to Arafat, but Arafat did nothing. The last time he visited Palestine, shortly before his death, Arafat did not even meet him.

Globalisation of Protest

In a system of unrestrained movement of capital, with equal treatment for capitals, irrespective of their origin, there is escaping the conclusion that only a global working people's response or a global social contract can be the alternative to a race to the bottom in regard to welfare commitments.

Decentralisation and Local Accumulation

In China the phase of rapid growth was based on agriculture and other on-farm production which both reduced rural poverty and provided surpluses for industrial investment. But agriculture quickly came up against the barrier of diminishing returns - in the absence of technological change - and capital began to be diverted to other, more profitable investment activities. How has this drain of savings from rural to urban areas been reversed?

Managing NTFP: Problems of Unregulated Commons

The failure of traditional management systems for non-timber forest produce to cope with problems of regeneration and of maintaining the sustainability of the output demands some new rules and systems. Essentially old forms of social capital in these indigenous communities, which were based on reciprocity and nonaccumulation, are no longer functional and are breaking down. And there may be no easy transition from kinship-based collectivities to newer citizen-based groups.

ICTs in Rural Poverty Alleviation

Social structures are crucial in determining who is able to access any technology and use it beneficially. While making new information and communication technologies (ICTs) cheap will make them more accessible to the poor, there will be other factors which determine their impact. The current low penetration of ICTs is a reflection of the digital divide in overcoming which there is no way to bypass a confrontation of low educational levels, which itself is linked to landlessness.

Basis of China's Competitiveness

Absence of a land market, production for export, an educated labour force and a greater identification of labourers in a large number of enterprises (the township and village enterprises) with the results of their labour are some of the factors accounting for China's higher productivity and thus competitiveness in the world market.

End of Catch-Up Industrialisation-Notes on South-East and East Asian Crisis

Notes on South-East and East Asian Crisis DN THE economic crisis that has been sweeping large parts of south-east and east Asia has already taken a high human toll in terms of job losses and falling incomes. Of course, the rich across the region have also lost subs- tantial portions of their wealth and income, Bangkok has become famous for its new week-end 'flea market' of the rich, where you can buy anything from fancy watches and jewellery to pleasure boats and light aircraft. One need shed no tears for those whose fortunes have been diminished. But millions have been pushed into unemployment or have found their incomes falling. An ILO report (1998) on the social impact of the economic crisis points out that women and migrants figure disproportionately among the victims. The youth passing out of high school and even college suddenly find that the job market has literally evaporated, The anger at those who built fortunes while the going was good and still continue to profit from misery has exploded into wide- spread struggles against the Suharto regime in Indonesia. In South Korea militant trade unions and students have been repeatedly clashing with the police. While the rest of south-east Asia and east Asia has not seen the kind of widespread turmoil in Indonesia or even South Korea, nevertheless everywhere one can sense a loss of faith in the established systems of government and business.

Emerging Alternatives in China

well their demand is for Indian political and cultural autonomy. Half of the population of Chiapas is Mayan in language, culture and ethnicity, and the Mayan Indians have suffered centuries of oppression and discrimination in Mexiaxand other countries at the hands of the non-Indian population and the state. The Indians in Guatemala have been engaged in political struggle for indigenous rights; it should come as no surprise that the Chiapan Indians are beginning to awaken.

China in Transition-Impressions of a Visit to Yunnan

Impressions of a Visit to Yunnan Yunnan is one of the most backward provinces of China and it was instructive to note what could be seen in this backwater of the possibilities of capitalist development.

What Collapsed in the Soviet Union

project the ideology of Kashmiri independence, the Hurriyat moved towards adopting referendum as its objective.Huniyat embraces seven parties and 20 groups and associations. It includes, among others, the Muslim Conference, Jamaat-e'Islami, People's Conference, People's League, Awami Action Committee and JKCLF. Maulvi Omar Farooq has been chosen its leader.

Late Industrialisation

Late Industrialisation DN THE discussion on industrialisation in South Korea has been dominated by the question of whether or not it fits the export- oriented model of the development of capitalism. The World Bank would have us believe that South Korea's success embodies the virtues of reliance on the world market and of following the logic of comparative advantage. Simultaneously, the current problems of industrialisation in India and Latin America prompt the insistent advice that these countries should give up their 'inward-looking' policies and open up their economies to world trade and capital flows. This discussion has intertwined with another


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