ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Patent Lies and Latent Danger

The creation, under the TRIPs agreement of 1994, of a uniform, standardised international patent regime, unheedful of the differing levels of development, natural and human endowments and history of various countries, has become controversial. Firstly, such a regime clashes with the 1993 convention on biodiversity wherein 170 countries have upheld the need for diversity. Secondly, the increasing patenting of life forms in the developing countries by the MNCs under the pretext of bio-prospecting will lead to a patent regime overwhelmingly in favour of the developed countries. Moreover the 20-year period of product patent rights together with the monopoly marketing rights eliminates the possibility of competing with the MNCs on equal footing. In such a scenario, what should India's position be on this issue?

SAP Issues and Conditionalities-A Global Review

This paper attempts to show that the structural adjustment programme formulated by the Bretton Woods organisations that are controlled by the seven richest countries in the world operates exclusively in the less developed countries. How far and to what extent has the adjustment package been introduced to rescue the international banking system facing bankruptcy in the aftermath of the second oil crisis and the debt crisis and/or to find markets for the MNCs of US origin in view of the massive balance of trade deficit that country is incurring every year? The author examines IMF and World Bank conditionalities and reviews the experience of countries which have implemented structural adjustment programmes.

The New Political Economy-A Critical Analysis

A Critical Analysis Biplab Dasgupta The literature on new political economy is vast and steadily growing and as one would expect, veering round the main theme are interesting variations and subtle and not too subtle differences within the school, Some describe it as neo-classical economic theory of politics, others specifically as a political cousin of structural adjustment, setting out political preconditions for its success. And to yet others it is a cocktail of the Marxist concept of the state without its class analysis and with the Liptonian theory of urban bias thrown and blended with neo-classical economics. Whatever the viewpoint the fact remains that the new political economy provides a powerful justification for the structural adjustment package of the World Bank. This paper presents an outline of the ideas emanating from this school of thought and attempts a political-economic analysis of new political economy itself Introduction WHILE the structural adjustment package, sponsored by the World Bank, has been subjected to a close scrutiny by the Indian researchers, the new political economy (NPE), which provides its theoretical basis, seems to have gone unnoticed. The main objective of this paper is to present an outline of the main ideas emanating from this school of thought and then, to subject those to a critical examination.

Institutional Reforms and Poverty Alleviation in West Bengal

in West Bengal Biplab Dasgupta West Bengal, a very poor and very rural state, has vastly improved its relative position on a broad range of economic, social and rural indicators. Land reforms, the development of panchayats and implementation of poverty alleviation programmes through them, and political mobilisation of the rural poor, are the distinguishing features of development since 1977 which account for this progress. However, the state continues to be backward on certain fronts such as cooperatives and PDS development.

Land Use Planning in Rural Bengal

Biplab Dasgupta Land Utilisation and Population Distribution in West Bengal 1850-1985 by Jyotirmoy Sen; Daya Publishers, Delhi, 1988; pp 227 and four plates.

Fighting for Migrant Labourers

Migrant Labour and Related Issues edited by Vidyut Joshi; Gandhi Labour Institute, Ahmedabad, 1987; pp 334, Rs 125.
IF one prepares a list of the most heavily researched subjects in social science, migration would undoubtedly occupy a position near the top, if not at the very top. In addition, this is also a subject on which practically everyone has a view and claims to know something. Economists, sociologists, political scientists, historians, social anthropologists geographers, social workers, urban planners, voluntary agencies, administrators, there is hardly any discipline left which has not contributed something to the proliferating literature on this subject. By its very nature, it is an inter-disciplinary subject, amenable to treatment from a variety of standpoints.

The Other Energy Crisis

book fulfills its promise in both senses.
On the one hand, it indeed is very much restricted to the observations in the particular year in which the study has been carried out, even to the extent that the information collected during occasional visits in the one and a half decades after the original field-work have only been used to fill up the gaps, not to monitor the changes.

Agricultural Labour under Colonial, Semi-Capitalist and Capitalist Conditions- A Case Study of West Bengal

Semi-Capitalist and Capitalist Conditions A Case Study of West Bengal Biplab Dasgupta Two kinds of issues concerning agricultural labourers have excited the interest of academics recently. First, the question how far the growth of agricultural labour is equivalent to a growth of capitalist relations in agricultural production. Whether they are free wage-labourers with the option to choose employers and having no particularly strong 'association with the individuals employing them or whether they are tied to their employers by a variety of pre-capitalist relationships is an issue on which an interesting debate has been going on. Second, the programme of the Left Front government in West Bengal with respect to this class too has become a subject of debate. The question has been raised of the immediate and the long-run perspective of the government's programme to improve their wage, employment and living conditions and the relevance of such reform for other sections of the peasantry.

Sharecropping in West Bengal-From Independence to Operation Barga

From Independence to Operation Barga Biplab Dasgupta This paper begins with an examination of the reforms undertaken during the fifties under the Congress regime in West Bengal mainly the Acts of1950, 1953 and 1955 and their impact on sharecroppers. This is followed by a review of the legislative and administrative decisions taken during the seventies, again under the Congress regime which were very radical in content, but were not meant to be implemented.

Sharecropping in West Bengal during the Colonial Period

the Colonial Period Biplab Dasgupta The objective of this paper is to analyse the emergence, growth and change in the sharecropping system in the westerm part of undivided Bengal (which is approximately equivalent to present-day West Bengal) during the colonial period. This is an introductory paper, to be followed by another examining the development and the decay of the institution during the post-independence period.


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