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Contradictions between the Smaller Nationalities in Pakistan

the environmental campaign bogey, the operators claim that since they are under threat of closure they cannot provide regular permanent employment. This allows them to recruit hands on a contract basis and helps them escape the normal responsibility of provident fund contributions and medical relief and compensation in the case of accidents which are frequent. The environmentalists have generally ignored these effects and have failed to assist in the setting up of machinery to safeguard the interests of labour in the post-quarry closure period.

Where Is the Opposition in Pakistan

THE Marxist-Leninist groups and parties, the Left bourgeois parties, the Liberals and all the pro-democracy organised sections of society are agreed on one thing: that there is no real democracy in Pakistan and this 'controlled democracy' is essentially a sham. Some of the parties on the Left are quite clear that the Junejo government is a front for the military regime behind the scene which pulls all the strings, albeit, allowing for some degrees of freedom so as to make the front seem more authentic than it really is. For some of the other parties on the Left, it is not just Zia's military government which controls Junejo's strings, but it is imperialist interests, more specifically the United States, which is responsible for the major happenings in the country, directing the political, economic and foreign policies to suit its own interests. Yet despite these various levels of understanding about the political process in the country, there is one depressing reality which today stares one in the face: there seems to be no effective organised opposition to either the Junejo government, or to the Zia military clique or to the manipulation by the United States in Pakistan's affairs! The impression one gets from the highly noticeable apathy in political circles in the country suggests one or two important points. It is possible that the opposition has finally accepted Junejo's watered down democracy and is now playing the game according to his rules. The evidence for this emanates from the recent statements of party leaders and the virtual ineffectiveness of what was the largest, most organised political force, the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy, the MRD. On the fortieth anniversary of the independence of Pakistan, a day which should have seen substantial activity by the opposition, the MRD could not even come up with some positive political slogans to mobilise the masses, leave alone organise any effective demonstrations in the large urban centres of the country.

Who Makes Pakistan s Economic Policies

latest, often more capital intensive, technologies whenever possible. Since there was, as noted previously, some agreement that real agricultural wages have not risen on average, it seems unlikely that the observed rise in industrial wages is attributable to any healthy growth in labour demand pressing on wages. Rather, at least two tentative explanations were proffered: that rising strength and militancy of the unions has succeeded in raising members' wages; and that at least some of the wage escalation may be explained by a changing mix of firm sizes within the organised sector, with larger firms paying inherently higher wages. But either way, although India's industrial wages remain extremely low, workers within this sector may nonetheless be characterised as a labour aristocracy relative to agricultural labour.

One Year of Left Unity in Pakistan

The Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan's hading anti- imperialist party, will celebrate its first anniversary on July 26 with a convention and, for the first time, elections to choose its leadership. The ANP has not achieved much so far, except amongst the Pakhtuns, but its experience in the last one year holds important lessons for left and anti-imperialist forces in Pakistan.

Pakistan s Decade of the Generals

In his first address to the nation as Chief Martial Law Administrator on July 5, 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq came across as incompetent, unimpressive and inexperienced. Ten years later Zia is today acknowledged as Pakistan's most astute politician who has controlled the political opposition like a master puppeteer To understand this metamorphosis the changes in Pakistan's economy, society and politics, in the role of the military and in the affairs of the region as a whole need to be analysed.

Political Economy of the Taxation Racket

slogan if the precise relation between the party and the trade union is not analysed and defined, specially when the trade union movement in India has been divided on political lines with each party leading a particular trade union centre.

PAKISTAN-Religious Bigotry and Lobbying for UNESCO Post

jointly with Sudipto Dasgupta. In terms of a very simple model, the authors demonstrate the possibility of intractable growth patterns ('chaos'). Dipankar Dasgupta's 'Reflections on Administered Prices' exploits the effective-demand-cum-supply-constraint framework to examine the effects of changes in administered prices of depletable inputs on (a) input use and (b) employment. 'Money and Commodities' by Amitava Bose is a preliminary attempt to see the link between the monetary and real sectors in terms PAKISTAN of the need for investment finance rather than in terms of the indirect channel of interest rates and, thereby, the profitability of investment.

PAKISTAN-Is Democracy the Answer

wishing to set up co-operatives. Lacking these, what often happens is that these organisations are co-operatives only in name; their structure and functioning ends up being indistinguishable from that of any other business.

PAKISTAN-Pak-US Military Relationship in 1980s

PAKISTAN Pak-US Military Relationship in 1980s Babar Ali SINCE at least October last year, a great deal of new information has been made public about the military relationship between the United States and Pakistan. Most of the information has come into the open thanks to a couple of scholars working on Pakistan, who while residing in North America have had access to information from US sources, many of which are confidential. Apart from these scholars, a number of newspapers and periodicals have also reported on recent developments in the relationship. The information that has come to light is of extreme importance, to say the least. Before an attempt is made to comment on the military relationship between the US and Pakistan, I will present the new evidence to the readers of this column so that they are made aware of the dimensions of the relationship.

PAKISTAN-Sind and Struggle for Liberation

during the first left front regime was taken over by the CPI(M) in the second left front regime and there is no doubt that health services and hospital conditions further deteriorated. The present health minister by his action and inaction has proved himself to be absolutely incompetent, The whole system has become a continuing 'war' against the patients

PAKISTAN-Who Rules the Campuses

January 31, 1987 PAKISTAN Who Rules the Campuses? THE politics at student level in the numerous colleges and universities all over Pakistan is very closely tied into the broader politics of each particular region. More specifically, those political forces which are most dominant at the provincial level have a supplementing students

PAKISTAN- Pakistan Television Zia-Junejo-Mullah Show

December 13, 1986 PAKISTAN Pakistan Television: Zia-Junejo-Mullah Show Babar Ali THE fact that the media is controlled and manipulated by the government in all countries is accepted by even those who speak for the government. For those individuals who can see beyond the facade of governments and for those who talk in terms of classes, the media essentially reproduces the ideology of the dominant class' sections of which may not even be in government. In underdeveloped countries this phenomenon is even more important and marked as democratic norms are usually the exception and dictators, either of a military or civil genre, run the country on behalf of some vested interests.


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