ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Who Won in West Bengal

Who Won in West Bengal?
Ashok Rudra EVEN the most optimistic political forecaster could not have forecast, and none did forecast, the surrealistic electoral victory of Indira's Congress in West Bengal. Even the most confirmed CPM hater can hardly explain to himself how it has been possible for the giant party to be defeated so abjectly. And, of course, nobody is in a position to say how much of a loss of mass support for the CPM this defeat in elections indicates.

A Model-Maker s Model

Ashok Rudra Discussing the book "Planning for Growth'' by R S Eckaus and K S Parikh, the author suggests that the way to appreciate the model developed by Eckaus and Parikh is to treat it not as a planner's model but as a model-maker's model There are probably very few plan models that really give a great deal of important guidance to those who are engaged in actual preparation of plans; in any case that kind of guidance is the wrong thing to look for in the book by Eckaus and Parikh.

Capitalist Development in Agriculture

in India, where so many are young and learning to accommodate themselves to the institutions of a more egalitarian democracy founded on the rule of law. The police can protect these institutions and aspirations not only by arresting criminals but by what they choose to do and not to do in daily life, by the manner they adopt and by the example they constitute as an organisation in society. There are few countries that have attended adequately to the social and political dimensions of enforcing the law. India hits an opportunity to show the way.

Raw Material for Research in Agricultural Economics-Methodological and Organisational Problems

Agricultural Economics Methodological and Organisational Problems Ashok Rudra It is a matter of gratification for any research worker in the field of agricultural economics that the government has not only assumed responsibility for collecting routine statistics relating to production, acreage, prices, etc, but has also set up several organisations for collecting more detailed micro level information and for conducting studies on the basis of such information.

Employment Patterns in Large Farms of Punjab

Review of Agriculture June 1971 the different observations had a very weak statistical basis. Whatever the situation might have been in the early sixties when the FMS were conducted, the whole controversy loses much of its importance in view of the developments which are taking place in Indian agriculture because, even if the small farmer had certain advantages over large farmers in labour-intensive techniques, these are likely to be wiped out as capital-intensive techniques gain popularity among farmers.

Spectre Haunting Indira

TIMINGS can be inconvenient. Could not the insurrectionists of Ceylon have chosen another time for their abortive uprising and the bloodbath in which the revolution they wanted got drowned? As it happens, these headstrong youths who have given this peaceful island its most profoundly traumatic experience of centuries have so ill- chosen their time as to cause a great deal of embarrassment to the Indian Press, Indian politicians and, of course, to Indira Gandhi. But for Ceylon, India's great interest in Bangla Desh, albeit its advocacy of recognition of Bangla Desh as a substitute for taking the step itself, could have appeared as provoked entirely by considerations of liberty, democracy and humanitarian- ism. But the voices of liberty, democracy and humanitarianism seem to be remarkably muffled when it comes to Ceylon. There also certain things are happening. But no picture parades, no screaming headlines, no strongly-worded resolutions by political parties.

Planning and the New Agricultural Strategy

How much of genuine planning is implied in the Fourth Plan programme for agriculture? However careful and sympathetic one might be, a reading of the chapter on agriculture in the Plan cannot but give the feeling that the exercise of target-setting has been carried out more in the spirit of forecasting than in that of predicting.

New Urgency about Aid

August 8, 1970 when it comes to the protection of their vital interests and also because the concept of the circulation of elites in governmental positions is deeply in- grained and institutionalised among the groups. Occasional family quarrels among the elite groups do break out but they invariably come together to prevent any structural change or even a sizeable non-structural change (eg, an appreciable worsening of their share of income and wealth brought about by, say, legislation). Thus now we have a number of operational and methodologi- cally sound concepts which should help us in the study of Indian planning. It should now be clear that with a political set-up like the one we have in India today, a structural change in the Indian economy is ruled out because the elite groups would not allow it. Thus a structural change in the Indian economy implies a total institutional change, or in other words the present elite groups must be displaced if something meaningful has to be done to the Indian economy. The discussion can now be carried on at a different level how by a conscious planning effort, we WHAT is aid? Is aid good? How much aid? Aid or trade? How to measure aid? These questions have become in- creasingly important in discussions of economic development since the Second World War when aid in one form or another has become an essential part of the process of economic development. They have also assumed a new urgency ever since it was observed that (in the words of Prebisch) "if the inflow of loans were to continue at 1905 levels and the terms and conditions of that year were to be maintained, the service burden would grow so heavy that net loans would turn negative in 1970". The UNCTAD has been much can displace the elite groups and bring about a structural change in the Indian economy. It is not proposed to do this at this stage because that would be an extremely difficult topic. What one must make clear now is that conventional technological economics is totally helpless and ineffective when dealing with the transition of the economy from one stage to another (a more developed one) because such a transition would encompass the rest of society and must be analysed in terms of the variables of the general theory of social action. In the meantime any planning analysis of the partial type, in other words, the type neglecting institutional factors,10 must be treated with the suspicion it deserves. The technologist economist must be told once and for all, that he cannot go on optimising the economy in a social vacuum.

In Search of the Capitalist Farmer

Ashok Rudra The first two instalments of this report on a sample survey of large farms in Punjab appeared in the Reviews of Agriculture of September 27 and December 27, 1969. Certain average characteristics of large scale farming in Punjab were presented in these two articles. However, the purpose of the survey was to study not just large-scaleif such a category could be scientifically defined and identified empirically. pick out farmers having certain characteristics and to study the possible them. [The statistical work involved inFarm Management Centre of Visva IN our preceding two reports on the survey (carried out by the Agro-Economic Research Centre of the University of Delhi) among the large farmers of Punjab, defined as farmers cultivating more than 20 acres of land, we presented certain average characteristics of large-scale farming. However, as we mentioned in the first of the two above-mentioned articles, we had set out to study not just large-scale farming but capitalist fanning, if such a category could be defined scientifically and identified empirically. The reason why we took a sample of large farms rather than capitalist farms is that to draw a sample we have to have a definition of the population and we did not have at our disposal any operational definition of a capitalist farmer with the help of which we could identify capitalist farmers and draw up a list of such fanners in each village drawn in the first stage sampling. The reason why we have drawn a sample of large farmers as a surrogate for capitalist farmers is that we have assumed the intersection of the set of capitalist farms and the set of large farms to contain most of the elements of the set of capitalist farms. Which, of course, does not mean that most large-scale farms are capitalist farms; though it docs mean that most capitalist farms are (assumed to be, in Punjab) large.

Who s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf

exports. Having few vessels that can engage in international trade, having high ship-building costs and few dockyards and equally high seamen's wages; having, in other words, grown up under the shadow of the British shippers, Australia could only make the switch by a sudden, huge capital investment.

Big Farmers of Punjab-Second Instalment of Results

Second Instalment of Results Ashok Rudra This paper presents the second instalment of the results of a sample survey of large farms in Punjab carried out in the summer of 196869.


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