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The Indian Manager of the 1980s

Arabinda Ray The history of Indian industrial management in the period since Independence has made it quite clear that while we had a strong family and hierarchical tradition, we, unlike Japan, did not choose to exploit it in building our industrial, including management, relation patterns. Instead we chose to adopt norms of the Western world as the massive amount of American management literature that has been absorbed in this country in the last two decades will testify.

Government as Innovator

lars, scientists and artists.
The author has provided an interesting description of the Chinese negotiating style. He points out that the combination of Sino-centric tradition and revolutionary experience have been the conditioning factors for Chinese policy-makers and that one can discern continuity in the Chinese negotiating stylo over the centuries. Their belief in the inevitability of victory and their sense of time lessness add unique flavour to the Chinese style. It is now well known that the Chinese try to predetermine the outcome of negotiations by insisting on certain phraseology for the items on the agenda. They argue on procedures and format as much as on substantive issues, The description of the Panmunjom talks, which, in the author's words, "institutionalised the diplomacy of stalemate", throws light on such rigidity, impersonality and hostility on the part of the Chinese negotiators. Even very small things are used by the Chinese to denote unfriendly atmosphere, such as the use of ash-trays on the negotiating table dividing the North and South Korea delegations.

Widening Technological Gap-Case of Packaging Industry

Widening Technological Gap Case of Packaging Industry Arabinda Ray IN the West, competitive pricing is the fundamental requisite of success in the packaging field. Where more than one supplier of equivalent standing, knowhow and customer service facilities is available, nobody is in a position to command a price premium as a matter of right. An ever-accelerating race goes on through a mammoth expenditure on research and development aimed at arriving at a more competitive price position through what is often a minute saving in cost. Since both manufacturers and fillers of packages have high volume operations, what looks a ridiculously small saving per unit becomes worth achieving for total economy. We are far from this situation in India, because microscopic unit savings do not make spectacular reading when they arc multiplied by volume. There is, therefore, great reluctance to effect a change which involves an increase in packaging risks

Non-Achieving Society

December 7, 1968 the starting point, it becomes for the author the conclusion even after the Government had openly repugned it.
Lade of clarity sometimes leads the author into unhelpful situations. For example, considering speculations about Pakistan acquiring nuclear weapons, Subrahmanyam writes: "Whatever be the considerations on which the Indian decision is likely to be based, Pakistan's threat to enter into weapon production to counter an Indian bomb is the least likely one to influence it" and he thinks that China's arming of Pakistan with nuclear weapons is a possibility and that India might do well to be on guard against such a contingency. The author even ventures to predict that the "coming decade may well see Pakistan reconciling herself to an appropriate equation of power and role within the subcontinent". One only wishes Subrahmanyam's prediction would come true and that Indo- Pak security problems be sorted out.

Entrepreneur s Challenge to Career Managers

Entrepreneur's Challenge to Career Managers Arabinda Ray PROFESSIONAL management is not an altogether new concept in India. Throughout the Moghul period and later, under the British, after the introduction of the Permanent Settlement, a powerful managerial class, quite apart from the owner class, emerged to look after real estate with the skills of supervision that the age demanded.

Business in Society

Business has not been honoured by tradition in Indian society. Social values through the ages have tended to give importance to virtues which are opposed to the qualities that lead to success in business.

The Economics of Packaging

Arabinda Ray The Indian consumer has begun to appreciate the advantages of good packaging and is prepared to pay for them. Yet the packaging industry looks before and after and pines for what is has not. It envies the economies of scale and the inexpensive high quality raw materials which packaging industry in developed countries can obtain.

The Indian Manager in Search of a Style

December 23, 1967 so that a continuum of increasing labour productivity is created" (p 226). However, these phases of development need not be strictly adhered to in the case of all developing countries.

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