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PM-KISAN and the Adoption of Modern Agricultural Technologies

The Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi scheme aims to provide income support to farmers for easing their liquidity needs to facilitate timely access to inputs. This study, based on 1,406 farmers of Uttar Pradesh, uses a binary choice model to examine the targeting accuracy and correlates of the spending pattern of farmers. Triple difference with matching estimators is used to identify the differential impact of the scheme on the Krishi Vigyan Kendra beneficiaries. Results show that the scheme reached one-third farmers in the first three months of its implementation, and has significantly helped those who are relatively more dependent on agriculture and have poor access to credit. Moreover, the scheme has significantly stimulated the Krishi Vigyan Kendra's impact on the adoption of modern cultivars.

Access to Credit in Eastern India

The impact of access to credit on the economic well-being of agricultural households in eastern India is empirically evaluated. Using a large, farm-level data set from eastern Indian states and a multinomial endogenous switching regression model, the findings reveal that access to credit increases economic well-being, and farmers availing credit from formal sources are better off than those availing credit from informal sources. Finally, access to credit affects recipients heterogeneously, implying that credit policies should be adaptable to different agricultural household groups.

What Drives Transitions in Milk Productivity?

The trend in milk productivity and its association with breed improvement, feeding and animal husbandry practices, and effi ciency in dairy farming at the household level are examined using the representative cost of cultivation surveys in Punjab. Although milk yield at the farm level is rising due to the increasing adoption of cross-bred cattle and changing composition of animal rations, evidence is found to support the argument to popularise cross-bred technology for realising a higher milk yield. However, the rising trend in milk yield coexists with declining effi ciency levels in milk production.

Factors Contributing to Income Inequalities among Agricultural Households in India

Inequality in agricultural households in 20 major states is estimated and its factors analysed. In most states, farming and livestock contribute over half the total income. Income inequalities, irrespective of farm size, are large, though these have not widened much over time; major sources are non-farm income, land, and farm assets. The relationship between growth in household income and land size is positive; it does not augur well for the government’s professed objective of promoting inclusive development. To bridge income gaps, mechanisms need to be developed to ensure the viability of increasingly small and fragmented landholdings.

Farmers’ Choice of Milk-marketing Channels in India

Using nationally representative household-level data, the structure of milk markets is examined and the factors that determine the Indian dairy farmers’ choice of milk-marketing outlets are identified. The analysis of participation in various milk-marketing channels indicates that dairy farmers, irrespective of their asset-status, sales volume, and socio-economic status, prefer to sell their output through cooperatives and government agencies, even if these offer lower prices compared to the local traders. Concomitantly, of the various direct-to-consumer outlets, cooperatives are more inclusive and largely transcend the boundaries of caste and land size. Of the various economic factors that influence farmers’ choice, the access to institutional credit is critical in driving sales through the formal milk-marketing channels.

Export Performance of Indian Fisheries

Fisheries exports have registered a tremendous growth during the period 1987-2000, and the export basket of fisheries products has become reasonably diversified. Export of frozen fish recorded the highest annual growth but shrimps and prawns constituted the major category of exports, capturing an impressive 5 per cent of the world export market. Trade reforms of the 1990s seem to have further facilitated the export of fish and fish products from India and the feared import surge after the opening up of the economy is still not visible. Measures of relative competitive advantage reveal that India has become reasonably competitive in recent years but it must vigorously take up various sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, consistent with WTO guidelines, in order to give exports a further boost. However, there is a concern that these measures are being increasingly promulgated with the deliberate purpose of shielding domestic producers from international competition.
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