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WEST BENGAL-CPI(M) Too Is for Normalcy

to the special correspondent of Amrita Bazar Patrika, Basu indeed went further. He is reported to have "felt that the problems of law and order could not be dealt with in isolation without reference to the condition of the society. For instance, he referred to the increasing unlemploy- ment, class contradictions and poverty and such other things as are bound to be reflected on the general law and order situation. If the law enforcing agencies failed to take into account all these factors they would not be able to mobilise the desired public cooperation".

Sidelights on Soviet Union

Sidelights on Soviet Union Ajit Roy The Dynamics of Soviet Politics edited by Paul Cocks, Robert V Daniels and Nancy Whittier Heer; Harward University Press, 1976;

CPI(M) s Draft Political Resolution

THE main quality of the draft political resolution for the coming tenth congress of the CPHM) is its diffuseness. Unlike their counterparts abroad, the communist parties in India usually place before their plenary sessions something which, though labelled as a 'resolution

WEST BENGAL-Substituting Reform for Revolution

significant part in determining cost's or quality of production in these Industries But the list is proposed to be revised as and when necessary and there is no danger of it being enfold with too much strictness, Also there is to be no phasing out of the existing large-scale industries in the reserved area as was demanded in the Janata party's resolution on economic policy, The (joint, however, is that reservation of more and more industries for the small-scale' sector has beeen of no particular help in the past to achieve the objectives in view. The definition of small-scale industry remains unchanged. A unit will be classified in the small-scale sector if it has a specified level of capital outlay at present fixed at Rs 15 lakhs - regardless of what it produces and how. No consideration has been given to the fact that concessions to the small-scale units, either by way of credit or supply of inputs, under the prevailing conditions and arrangements, does not help to change either the pattern of production or consumption and does not help to adjust prices and costs which will serve priority requirements. On the contrary, it is well established that the small-scale sector, as now defined and regulated is an area of sweated labour and la used by the large-scale sector to divert material and financial resources towards non-priority areas and lines of activity, Considerable concern has been expressed in some circles about the stipulation in the new industrial policy statement that large-scale enterprises will have to generate their own resources for expansion and modernisation rather than depend too much on public financial institutions. But it is proposed to make adjustments in the pricing of industrial products to ensure an adequate rate of return on capital to facilitate the generation of internal resources for reinvestment. The question is how far this will be done in practice. The gov- eminent has been reluctant to do that even in the case of public sector enterprises as well as for private sector industries in the name of controlling prices. To talk of making the industry capable of generating surpluses of its own and then to work out schemes for large-scale pumping in of resources from the public financial institutions to the so-called sick industries shows how practice will not necessarily square with precept WEST BENGAL Substituting Reform for Revolution Ajit Roy THE CPI(M)-Ied Left Front government in West Bengal has Just completed six months in office. By any prevailing standards of measurement, its performance during this period has been quite creditable. Most of the political prisoners, some of whom had been behind bars for about a decade

WEST BENGAL-Not a Negative Vote

Not a Negative Vote Ajit Roy BY winning 230 seats out of a total of 293, for which polling has been held (election in one constituency has been countermanded due to the death of a candidate), the CPI(M)-Jed Left Front has created history. Even if the two seats secured by the CPI are left out because of the present equivocal position of that party, another five seats, four of the SUC and one of the CPI(ML), though annexed by them in Opposition to the Left Front, undoubtedly belong to the Left camp. As against the 235 Left members in the new House, the tally of the Right- wing totals only 49

Christians and Marxists

to narrow the extent of the market facilities to their own borders by rigging tariffs, regulating imports and exports, allowing roads to decay, and attempting to attain internal self- sufficiency in food rather than moving their states into a wider exchange economy." The princes were afraid that if they became linked economically to the outside world, 'they were likely to become subservient politically. The commercial class was cramped also by the fact that the peasants had no ownership rights in land and could not mortgage their lands for loans. Moneylenders were unable to exploit the peasantry in the manner their fellows did in British India. This state of affairs created considerable discontent amongst the commercial classes of Saurashtra. Many migrated from the region, going particularly to Bombay where the opportunities were far better. This merely fanned the discontent, for after 1917 the Gujarati trading classes of British India became staunch Gandhians, and the movement inevitably flowed back to relatives and fellow merchants in Saurashtra. In their struggle with the princes between 1917 and 1948, the commercial classes tried to win the peasantry to their side, but the rulers stopped them from going to the villages to agitate. As a result, when the bourgeoisie gained power in Saurashtra in 1948, it was not because they had brought the princes to their knees through mass agitation, but because of the replacement of the British by Congress at the all- India level After Independence the Vanias and Brahmans who gained power in Saurashtra set about winning the support of the Patidar peasantry through tenancy legislation. Between 1948 and 1955, the landlord classes lost considerable amounts of land to rich and middle peasants who before had been their tenants. An attempt of armed revolt by the princes was crushed with ease. The rural population was brought into the market economy by the substitution of land revenue in cash for the old system of rent in kind. Additional cesses and systems of corvee labour were abolished. Tenancy abolition in Saurashtra was far more successful than in many other areas of India, partly because the princes lacked the power to resist (as happened in Rajasthan), and partly because the low density of population meant that there was land for all. The result was a rise in agricultural productivity and a shift to cash crops Between 1949 and 1964, the total area under food crops fell, the area under cotton remained steady, while the area under groundnuts rose to 41 per cent of the total cultivated area of Saurashtra, The cities also grew considerably. Industrial development was particularly notable in the processing of raw agricultural materials, such as cotton and groundnuts. Communications, and particularly the road system, were developed. After Independence the rural areas kept pace with the urban areas to such an extent that the commercial classes who had become the rulers in 1948 began to be challenged politically by the formerly weak Patidar peasantry.


distinction as a bastion of Leftism in the country; the Left Front of the CPI(M), RSP and Forward Bloc has bagged 23 seats out of a total of 42, not counting the victory of an Independent candidate with the CPI(M) support. In 1971 too, the Left in West Bengal had stemmed the so-called Indira wave when the CPI(M) had won 20 seats and the RSP and the PSP one each out of the total of 40. The Congress tally has been reduced from 13 in the previous House to only three in the present. The worst debacle, however, has been suffered by the CPI. In 1971, when it had joined the electoral battle independently, the party had collected nearly 1.4 million votes and won three seatsThis time, by entering the lists as a junior collaborator of the ruling Congress to fight in eight constituencies, the party got less than a million votes in aggregate, although the total number of valid votes cast was about 11 per cent higher than in 1971. AIl its candidates, including the three stalwarts, Hiren Mukherji, Ranen Sen and Indrajit Gupta, all members of the dissolved Lok Sabha, have suffered decisive defeats.

WEST BENGAL-Congress Terror

charge that the Opposition League had taken the Muslims to the Jan Sangh camp is not cutting any ice... they had not entered into any accord with the Ian Sangh as a party. They had reached an understanding with the Marxists, Janata Party and others only''. Ziauddin Bukhari, the president of the Maharashtra Muslim League is thundering from Janata platforms. Since the Janata Party has pledged to set up a commission for solving the problems of minorities and give Urdu its rightful legal status, the dissident Muslim Leaguers feel that Janata Party too should be given an opportunity to fulfil its promises.

Auxiliaries in Service of Current Political Line

October 9, 1970 per cent) and Denmark (12.6 per cent). The same can be said about inflation which is estimated at 4.6 per cent in West Germany.
Despite increased unemployment and inflation, West Germany is the fifth among the countries having the highest standard of living in the world. Since 1966, the net earnings of employees have gone up by one hundred per cent. Price rises have been fluctuating between 7 per cent (1974) and 5 per cent (1976) giving country the lowest average increases compared to the US and other West European countries. The Deutsche Mark is among the strongest international currencies.

The Italian Communists

The Italian Communists Ajit Roy THE key issue of contemporary Italian politics

ITALY-Vatican and the Left

Vatican and the Left Ajit Roy THE recent fall of Aldo Moro's minority government was not just one more instance of the chronic instability of the post-World War II Italian politics. There are some fundamental features that distinguish the present political crisis from the contingencies that had pulled down the previous 37 governments. Some of the recent critical developments in Italy, as for instance, the acute stagnation resulting on the one hand in deep depression and on the other in galloping inflation, corruption in high places, and so on have been widely reported. These are certainly some of the powerful impulses sinking huge masses to unite in militant opposition to the existing regime. For instance, on December 12, 1975, half, a million factory workers from different parts of Italy assembled and marched in Naples

FRANCE- Towards Pragmatism

January 24, 1076 FRANCE Towards 'Pragmatism' Ajit Roy IN recent months the Communist Party of France has taken some significant steps towards what may be characterised as the Togliatti approach to politics. Though long wedded to the parliamentary path to socialism like the Italian Communist Party, the French party till recently adhered to more orthodox Marxist norms and on occasions had even been involved in subdued polemics with its counterpart beyond the Alps. But in the middle of November last, the general secretary of the French party paid a visit to Rome to sign a long joint communique with the general secretary of the Italian party, dec- ug a complete identity of views on crtieical questions of political evolution in their two countries. The statement was widely regarded as the French parly's subscription to the Italian party's position of independence from Moscow's ideological influence.


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